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Glossary of IT Terms


Absence Management:
Absence management is a strategy used by employers to minimize employee absenteeism, prevent workforce disturbance, and increase employee productivity. It entails establishing a balance between assisting workers absent from their jobs due to illness, accidents, or other unanticipated events and penalizing those whose absences are dubious or excessive.

Absorption Chillers:
In contrast to conventional chillers, absorption chillers are powered by heat rather than electricity, which could lead to significant efficiency increases. The reliquification is different, but the cooling mechanism is still evaporative—a liquid turning into a vapor. The vapor is absorbed into another liquid rather than crushed. Here, ammonia, absorbed into the water, is used in the traditional cycle.

Access point:
An access point, also known as a pico base station or network access point, allows WLAN clients to access network resources connected to a home or business network. It comprises a radio (typically more than one) and a network connection.

Accredited Standards Committee (ASC):
The American National Standards Institute has granted accreditation to the Accredited Standards Committee (ASC), which creates uniform communication protocols for electronic data exchange.

All persons, including those with visual, hearing, motor, or cognitive impairments, can navigate and understand the process of building and developing Web sites and other technology, according to Section 508 of the 1998 Rehabilitation Act. People who use older/slower software and hardware can also benefit from this design style.

Account Executive (AE):
Account executives (AEs) are salespeople who are primarily in charge of managing ongoing client relationships daily. With the primary goal of maintaining and fostering client connections, AEs have a thorough awareness of a customer firm’s goals, solutions, and products.

 Access method:

  1. The portion of a computer’s operating system is responsible for formatting data sets and their direction to specific storage devices. Examples from the mainframe world include the Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) and Indexed Sequential Access Method (ISAM).
  2. In local-area networks, the technique or program code is used to arbitrate the use of the communications medium by granting access selectively to individual stations. 

Account Growth:
The capacity of a provider to raise the share of the wallet with an existing client is known as account growth.

Account Management:
Account management is giving customers opportunities for service, support, and improvement so that they use a good or service more and so that there are more chances to keep customers, cross-sell to them, and upsell to them.

Account Manager:
An account manager is a worker who creates and upholds client relationships that encourage retention and satisfaction. Account managers are responsible for overseeing the entire customer life cycle. In addition to collaborating with clients to ensure the use and satisfaction of the products or services, they also research and present novel solutions to help customers create more profitable business outcomes.

Account Planning:
Account planning outlines key information about potential customers or current clients, such as their decision-making process, the businesses vying for their business, and your overall strategy to win them over.

Account Team:
The group in charge of determining customer needs, connecting supplier solutions to those needs, representing the customer’s interests to the supplier organization, and managing the client relationship is known as an account team.

Accountable Care Organization (ACO):
The phrase “accountable care organization” (ACO) refers to a significant change in how providers and public or private payers enter into contracts. In an ACO model, a group of providers acting as a legal organization agrees to take on a portion of the cost and quality risk for a panel of beneficiaries throughout various value-based payment models. ACOs offer primary care services. One example of this strategy is the US CMS Distributed Shared Savings Program, which went into operation in 2012.

 Accounting Reconciliation:
Comparing two financial records ensures they agree it is the accounting reconciliation process. Reconciliation enables businesses to validate their internal records’ accuracy, consistency, and completeness.

Accounting Standards Certification 606:
The Revenue from Contracts with Customers rule, also known as Accounting Standards Certification 606 (ASC 606), is intended to recognize revenue consistently across all businesses. This US Federal Accounting Standards Board regulation offers a five-step structure to enhance uniformity in financial reporting and comparative analysis and reporting, making financial statement preparation easier.

Accounting Standards Certification 842:
Accounting Standards Certification 842 (ASC 842) aims to increase the comparability and openness of lease-using public, corporate, and non-profit entities. Whether or not the lease is categorized as an operational or financing lease, businesses are required by this US Federal Accounting Standards Board rule to disclose lease assets and obligations in their financial statements.

Accounts Receivable:
The sum of money that clients owe a business for supplied goods or services is known as accounts receivable. The company’s balance sheet lists account receivable as a current asset.

Accrual Accounting:
Accrual accounting tracks revenues and expenses as they are incurred regardless of when cash transactions occur.

Active Data Dictionary:
A tool for active data dictionaries that stores dynamically available and editable data on the definitions and descriptions of midrange-system data.

Active Directory:
The “directory service” component of the Windows 2000 OS is called Active Directory. The identities and connections between the dispersed resources that make up a network environment are managed by Active Directory. It offers a uniform approach to naming, describing, locating, accessing, managing, and securing information about network-based resources, including programs, files, printers, and people. It also saves information about these resources. For these distributed resources to cooperate, a central authority administers their identities and mediates their connections.

Active Matrix Organic Light-emitting Diodes (AMOLED):
The pixels of electroluminescent organic compounds used in active matrix organic light-emitting diodes (AMOLEDs) are “printed” in a matrix onto a base layer. Currently made of glass, this foundation layer will eventually incorporate flexible polymers. OLED displays are suitable for battery-powered gadgets since they don’t need a backlight and use a tiny amount of electricity, unlike liquid crystal displays. A thin film transistor manages the pixels of AMOLEDs (TFT).

The ActiveX application programming interface (API) improves the OLE protocol used by Microsoft. ActiveX, which is sometimes likened to Java, makes it possible for different Internet applications, thereby extending and enhancing the capabilities of Microsoft’s Internet Explorer browser. ActiveX permits the creation of interactive content, much like Java does. An ActiveX-aware browser immediately installs the necessary programs so that a feature can be used when it meets a Web page with an unexpected feature.

Activity Stream:
A publish-and-subscribe notification system and chat area known as an “activity stream” are frequently seen in social networking. It lists events or actions important to a specific individual, group, subject, or environment. To keep track of connected activities, a participant “follows” or subscribes to entities (such as other participants or business application objects). A project management application, for instance, might add status updates, or a physical object connected to the Internet might report its condition (e.g., tunnel lane closure).

Activity-based Costing (ABC):
An enhanced method for determining how and why expenditures are incurred inside a business is activity-based costing (ABC). It offers the data necessary for activity-based management, concentrating on the choices and steps required to save expenses and boost income. By expressly recognizing that not all cost objects exert an equal demand on support resources, ABC varies from standard cost accounting.

Account-Based Marketing (ABM):
Account-based marketing (ABM) is a go-to-market approach that uses a coordinated, ongoing series of marketing and sales operations to target specific accounts. Those accounts and people are involved in ABM activities throughout the buying process.

Ad Ops:
Ad Ops uses programmatic approaches to measure and optimize advertising while managing investments in paid media, such as search, display, and video across the Internet, mobile, and social destinations.

Ad Targeting:
Ad targeting is a strategy used by advertisers to target particular audiences, frequently based on demographics, psychographics, and browsing and purchasing patterns.

Ad Tech:
Ad Tech refers to a group of technologies used to handle digital advertising across channels such as search, display, video, mobile, and social. These technologies include functionalities for targeting, design, bid management, analytics, optimization, and automation.

Adapters are compact, targeted programs that make a legacy application’s data and/or functionality available. We use this term to refer to both the programs and the framework used to create adapter programs. Adapters are capable of being deceptively complicated. “Thick” adapters can recognize events, gather and transform data, and exchange data with a platform, integration suite, or other middleware, among other tasks. However, “thin” adapters may just “wrap” a native program interface, making a different, more commonplace interface accessible to the application. Additionally, adapters can deal with special circumstances and frequently dynamically (or with just modest reconfiguration) accommodate updates to source or target applications.
Adapters are frequently offered as stand-alone solutions, such as an adapter suite, or in packages with other integration middleware products, such as ESBs, integration suites, or portal servers. High-level categories of the many adapters include technical and application adapters.

Adaptive Learning:
Fundamentally speaking, adaptive learning is a style of instruction that modifies a student’s pedagogical approach based on their input and a predetermined reaction. A subtype of personalized learning that encompasses strategies like affective and somatic computing, adaptive learning is more recently being linked to a large-scale collection of learning data and statistically based pedagogical responses.

Additive Manufacturing:
Additive manufacturing refers to the ability to produce a physical product using 3D printing technology and a digitally encoded design.

Addressable TV Advertising:
Using addressable TV advertising technologies, advertisers can show various commercials or ad pods (groups of ads) within a single program or navigation screen and selectively segment TV viewers. Segmentation can occur at the regional, demographic, behavioral, and (in certain circumstances) self-selected individual household levels using set-top boxes, cable, satellite, and IPTV delivery systems (STBs).

Ad hoc IT support:

Ad hoc IT support activates after a problem arises by contacting IT support. Then the Information Technology team will propose a resolution or repair the Issue. Ad hoc IT support solutions in a similar form like calling out a repair service when your water heater breaks down. It’s also referred to as Reactive IT Support or On-demand IT Support.

Advanced Analytics:
To get deeper insights, create forecasts, or come up with suggestions, advanced analytics examines data or content autonomously or partially autonomously using sophisticated tools and methodologies, often beyond those of traditional business intelligence (BI). Data/text mining, machine learning, pattern matching, forecasting, visualization, sentiment analysis, semantic analysis, network, and cluster analysis, multivariate statistics, graph analysis, simulation, complex event processing, and neural networks are examples of advanced analytical approaches.

Locates a particular Internet resource. Examples include a web address (, an email address ([email protected]), or an internet address (

Advanced Clinical Research Information Systems (ACRIS):
A complex constellation of capabilities known as an advanced clinical research information system (ACRIS) can help patient management during clinical trials and quickly gather data assets for research queries. It also offers data mining and research process support to support clinical and translational research, biostatistics, and biocomputation. It contains open-source elements.

Advanced Distribution Management Systems (ADMS):
The software platform that enables the complete range of distribution management and optimization is an advanced distribution management system (ADMS). An ADMS has features that automate outage restoration and enhance the distribution grid’s efficiency. The fault location, isolation, and restoration, volt/volt-ampere reactive optimization, voltage reduction for energy saving, peak demand management, and support for microgrids and electric cars are some of the ADMS services being developed for electric utilities.

Advanced Distribution Protection And Restoration Devices:
Modern distributed control and communication technologies are used to construct advanced distribution protection and restoration systems. They can operate independently or in tandem with substation automation systems, communicating over peer-to-peer networks or high-speed fiber-optic networks. To effectively safeguard distribution assets, advanced distribution protection must also be able to connect with distributed generation, storage technologies, and other distributed resources.

Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS):
The primary focus of advanced driving assistance systems (ADAS) is on driver aids like night vision, driver awareness, and adaptive cruise control, as well as collision avoidance technologies like lane departure warning and blind-spot applications. Most ADAS features are integrated into the car; however, suppliers are starting to sell aftermarket products. To provide better value, next-generation ADASs will increasingly rely on wireless network connectivity (by using car-to-car data).

Advanced Fraud Detection And Analysis Technologies:
Instead of waiting for a later batch run once a transaction is complete, advanced fraud detection and analysis solutions use sophisticated analytics and predictive modeling to spot suspected fraud in real-time during data entry. Both claims and underwriting fraud are subject to it.

Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP):
AMQP (Advanced Message Queuing Protocol) (MOM) is a new standard for message-oriented middleware. Asynchronous, high-quality-of-service communication between two or more applications or between two or more components of an application is supported by MOM. Messages can be transmitted between software components provided by various suppliers without gateways or adapters, thanks to the wire protocol specified by AMQP.

Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI):
AMI is a composite technology comprising various components, including consumption meters, a two-way communications channel, and a data store (meter data management). Together, they assist at every stage of the meter data life cycle, from data collection to the ultimate distribution of energy consumption statistics to end users (for example, for load profile presentation) or an IT application (such as revenue protection, demand response, or outage management).

Advanced Planning And Scheduling (APS):
The term “advanced planning and scheduling” (APS) refers to manufacturing planning and scheduling within the supply chain framework.

Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET):
The US Department of Defense’s Advanced Research Projects Agency financed the development of the Internet’s ancestor, the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) (ARPA). It acted as the main backbone while the Internet was developing and served as the test bed for various aspects of internetworking technology development and testing. Using packet-switching computers connected by leased lines, the ARPANET was constructed.

Advanced Server Energy Monitoring Tools:
Each data center’s energy usage rises quickly, between 8% and 12% annually. The facility’s components and IT systems (such as servers, storage, and networking equipment) are powered by energy (for example, air-conditioning systems, power distribution units, and uninterruptible power supply systems). Users installing more equipment and the rising power needs of high-density server architectures are to blame for the rise in energy usage. While server-based energy management software products are specifically made to evaluate the energy use within server units, data center infrastructure management (DCIM) technologies are used to monitor and model energy use throughout the data center. They are typically an improvement over current server administration tools like IBM Systems Director or HP Systems Insight Manager (HP SIM). These software tools are essential for obtaining precise and timely measurements of the energy consumption of a specific server. This data can be entered into a reporting tool or a larger collection of DCIM tools. The data will serve as a crucial catalyst for the real-time adjustments that will power real-time infrastructure. As a result, for instance, a procedure to migrate an application from one server to another may be driven by a change in energy consumption.

Advanced Shipment Notice (ASN):
Before the shipment leaves the shipper’s facility, the shipper sends the receiver an electronic data interchange (EDI) message known as an advanced shipment notification (ASN). Complete details on the cargo and its contents are included in the message. In the current setting, this communication is most frequently an “as shipped note” issued after the shipment has left.

Advanced Technology:
A technology that is either technically developed but has just a small user base or is still in its infancy but promises to have a huge impact. Some examples of modern technologies include artificial intelligence, agents, handwriting and speech recognition, virtual reality and 3D visualization, smart cards, real-time collaboration, improved user authentication, data mining, and knowledge management.

Advanced Technology Group (ATG):
The advanced technology group’s (ATG) responsibility continuously provides the firm with new technological opportunities. Usually, it is in charge of prototype and pilot projects.

Advanced Threat Detection (ATD) Appliances:
All communications allowed to pass through regular layers of security controls are examined using advanced threat detection (ATD) appliances as an additional layer of security. These appliances use a combination of executable analysis, source reputation, and threat-level protocols to find advanced targeted attacks that other security measures miss.

Advanced Web Services:
Advanced Web services employ Web services standard functionality that goes beyond that which has been the norm. Any Web-services-related standards that go beyond the fundamental capabilities of SOAP, WSDL, and UDDI were included in the original definition. However, those features, long thought to be advanced, are now a part of the fundamental Web services package because of the emergence of the Web Services Interoperability (WS-I) Organization profiles and the widespread acceptance of standards like WS-Security, BPEL, and associated components. Basic Web services are widely and regularly used in various contexts and have reached the Plateau of Productivity. The most sophisticated Web services can handle asynchronous activity like WS-ReliableMessaging and complex security interactions like WS-Trust and WS-Federation. Because many interactions using Web services don’t require these capabilities or use other methods to achieve them, Web services using these advanced standards have been adopted more slowly. This is partly due to the slow pace of the ratification of the standards and rollout of their behavior (see “‘That’s All’ for Web Services” G00209765). This definition of advanced Web services differs from the one used in past Hype Cycles, and better reflects the capabilities’ current condition. The position and rate of adoption have also changed due to this adjustment.

Advertisement Action:
Any activity connected to advertising that permits engagement and communication between the advertiser and the audience is referred to as an advertisement action. Examples include clicking on a phone number to call the advertiser or utilizing a hyperlink to go to the advertiser’s website.

Advocacy Marketing:
Advocacy marketing is a field for mobilizing brand advocates on the social Web at a scale never before possible. Given the exponential growth of social networks, endorsements and recommendations are amplified to potentially millions of individuals when digital tools and advocate tales support advocacy marketing. However, loyalty and retention programs are increasingly aggressively utilizing advocacy marketing, which has previously been utilized successfully to attract new customers.

Aerial And Digital Imagery:
Aerial and digital imagery refers to the methods used by home and property insurers to inspect properties using digital photographs, including those in 3D, as well as the software that uses the photos to calculate the size, closeness to hazards, and location of physical sites or properties. It is typically provided through a data as a service (DaaS) on the Internet, where customers, such as homeowners or commercial property insurers, pay monthly membership fees or per usage to obtain data on the risks they are underwriting or claims they are investigating.

Affective Computing:
Through sensors, microphones, cameras, and/or software logic, effective computing technologies can detect a user’s emotional state and react by implementing certain predetermined product/service features, such as altering a quiz or suggesting a selection of videos to suit the learner’s mood. One of the main disadvantages of online learning compared to classroom learning is the teacher’s inability to quickly adjust the educational situation to the student’s emotional state in the classroom. Affective computing aims to address this issue.

Affiliate Marketing:
Commission-based affiliate marketing is used. Affiliates promote a company’s goods and have compensated a commission based on the leads or sales generated by their promotion.

Affirmative Action:
Affirmative action is a set of guidelines intended to give members of underrepresented groups equitable access to opportunities. Affirmative action policies aim to reduce employment, education, and income disparities between demographic groups and foster workplace diversity. Regional differences in affirmative action laws continue to be a source of legal and political debate.

Ageism, often known as age discrimination, is treating someone unfairly because of their age. In the workplace, this could manifest as a person being passed over for a job or promotion, older workers being denied benefits, or early termination of employment. Ageist beliefs can harm a victim’s health and cause people to be marginalized in their community. Anti-discrimination laws are intended to shield individuals from unfair practices like ageism.

Agency Balanced Scorecard:
Marketers use an agency-balanced scorecard to assess their agency partners’ performance and offer useful criticism for development. These scorecards should give each agency a numerical rating based on a clearly defined set of critical characteristics and metrics relevant to the organization’s marketing strategy. For marketing leaders to be able to audit, monitor, and analyze the effectiveness of their agency relationships, balanced scorecards should emphasize the agency’s talents and collaborative abilities.

Agent Collaboration Tools:
Using secure email, document sharing, communication tools, and secure instant messaging, agents and customers can cooperate in an electronic virtual workspace provided by agent collaboration solutions. When dealing with complicated life insurance cases or planning scenarios, these technologies facilitate communication between agents and specialists in the home office, clients, or other parties (including accountants and attorneys). The ability to make customer financial planning and account information available via agent websites is one of the cooperation options available to agents.

Agent Portal Solutions:
Agent portal capabilities, such as workflow and transaction capabilities, including quoting, binding, and service, are delivered by agent portal systems. Solutions enable upload and download capabilities to serve distributor needs in complicated product lines like specialized and commercial property and casualty (P&C) insurance. They also include advanced features like collaboration and case management.

Agile is a development approach that delivers software in increments by following the principles of the Manifesto for Agile Software Development.

Agile Marketing Project Management:
Making marketing programs more relevant, adaptable, and effective through applying tools, procedures, and organizational design principles influenced by software development methodology is known as agile marketing project management.

Agile NeoRAD:
Extreme programming is an agile approach in this kind of project strategy. Models are not high-quality development artifacts; they are sketches. Standardization raises relatively few difficulties regarding the reuse of frameworks and analysis and design patterns. Model-based code generation isn’t very common.

AIM (AOL Instant Messenger):
A pioneering, free, and open instant messaging service. A wide range of free client software supports Windows and Macintosh PCs, the Palm OS, Microsoft’s Pocket PC, and Symbian mobile phones. Likewise, see instant messaging (IM).

AIOps (Artificial Intelligence for IT Operations):
To automate IT operations procedures like event correlation, anomaly detection, and causality determination, AIOps blends big data with machine learning.

AIOps Platform:
Through the scalable ingestion and analysis of the ever-increasing volume, variety, and velocity of data created by IT, an AIOps platform integrates big data and machine learning functionality to support all key IT operations functions. The platform allows for the simultaneous use of many data sources, data collection techniques, analysis tools, and presentation software.

Algorithmic Business:
Algorithmic business is the industrialized application of sophisticated mathematical algorithms essential for enhancing business judgment or automating processes to gain a competitive edge.

All-in-one (AIO) PCs:
According to Gartner, all-in-one (AIO) PCs are desktop computers with integrated monitors. The monitor has a flat screen that is touch-sensitive. Examples include the iMac from Apple, the HP TouchSmart, the Lenovo ThinkCentre Edge, the Dell Inspiron One, the Acer Z5801, the Asus E-Top, and the Sony VAIO VPC.

A short, easy-to-remember name generated to replace a longer, more difficult name; is widely used in email programs. Also known as a “nickname.”

Alliance And Relationship Management:
A set of processes and tools known as alliance and partnership management is necessary to strengthen alliances/relationships with partners, outsource functions or activities, and retain visibility into a relationship with another corporate entity. Entities that contribute to developing and delivering an organization’s value proposition are included in relationships.

Alternative Card Networks:
For authorization, clearing, and settlement procedures, an alternative card network sends payment messaging (or payment instructions) through a communications network (for instance, an IP-based network) using its protocol (arrangements among participating entities, such as issuers, acquirers, processors and operators of the payment system network).

Alternative Delivery Models:
Alternative delivery methods are strategies for acquiring, delivering, and packaging IT in unconventional ways. Traditional IT development and delivery approaches are encased in finely tuned internal procedures whereby the IT organization develops or acquires technology (hardware or software), deploys it, supports it, and retires it. New channels for use, payment, and acquisition are a part of alternative distribution and acquisition strategies. Alternative models, which omit the IT department, may be used in some businesses and just involve users and business units.

Ambient And Glanceable Displays:
A special class of information appliances intended to be integrated into the home and workplace are ambient and glanceable displays and devices. They communicate only the essential details in a way that uses the brain’s “preattentive” processing capacity. This allows users to take in the information without diverting their focus from foreground tasks.

AMD (Architected, Model-driven Development):
AMD represents the most advanced SOA modeling. It emphasizes reliability, efficiency, and reusability. It is offered in the AMD composition and AMD development “flavors.” AMD composition assumes that the required services are already available and can be “assembled” into a business service or application, maybe with a new user interface (generally portal-based, using Web services). The specifications needed by workflow orchestration systems in the runtime environment can typically be generated by organizations using AMD composition models.

AMD development is predicated on the notion that new organizations must create software services before composition. AMD development tools can reuse the same business models created by people who do AMD composition. However, depending on the sort of service, IT staff typically refines these into more intricate models to generate anywhere from 70% to 100% of the code. AMD also consists of a group of techniques that provide “executable” models (where there is no explicit transformation to implementation).

American National Standards Institute (ANSI):
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI), which represents US stakeholders in international standardization forums, manages the creation and application of voluntary consensus standards in the United States. ANSI is actively involved in accrediting initiatives that evaluate standard compliance.

American Standard Code For Information Interchange (ASCII):
For the digital representation of uppercase and lowercase Roman letters, numbers, and special control characters in teletype, computer, and word processing systems, the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) standard table of seven-bit designations is used. Similar coding, known as Extended Binary-Coded Decimal Interchange Code, is used by some IBM systems (EBCDIC). Many hardware and software vendors have created their own nonstandard and incompatible extensions of the official ASCII 128-character set into a 256-character set because most computer systems need a whole byte to communicate an ASCII character.

Americans With Disabilities Act:
A US law known as the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) forbids discrimination based on physical or mental handicaps. Because the ADA recognizes disability as a protected class, it offers disabled individuals the same anti-discrimination protections as the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The ADA also established accessibility standards for public facilities and required companies to make reasonable accommodations for workers with disabilities. Many other nations have passed legislation extending safeguards to those with impairments.

AMG (Access Media Gateways):
A circuit-based voice switch and a packet-based IP or ATM access network are connected via an access media gateway (AMG). An AMG is connected to the local exchange or an access node and manages the PSTN to packet network transition at the local loop level. It can support VoIP and/or VoATM and has Class 5 switch interfaces.

Inverse AMGs, which connect a PSTN Class 5 local exchange to a packet-access domain (such as DSL, cable hybrid fiber-coax, power line, and local multipoint distribution service) using a Generic Requirement (GR)-303, V5.x interface, Primary Rate Interface (PRI) (Q.931) V5.2 access node (AN), and GR-303 remote digital terminal, are included in the AMG segment (RDT).

 AMIA (American Medical Informatics Association):
A non-profit organization devoted to advancing and applying medical informatics in patient care, education, research, and healthcare administration. The AMIA serves as an authoritative body in medical informatics and represents the United States in international forums in the informational arena of medical systems and informatics.

AMIS (Audio Messaging Interchange Specification):
Enterprise locations can transfer and forward voice messages between systems thanks to a major system function that has been improved for voice/call processing. Regardless of who makes the system, it is a voice processing standard that outlines the steps to network voice processing systems.

AMO (Application Management Outsourcing):
The continuing management, conversion, improvement, and support of a portfolio of applications by a third party. AMO is a subset of application outsourcing (see separate item). It contains modifications that typically take less time to implement than a certain amount of time (e.g., ten days or 30 days). Maintenance tasks include updating software, installing new releases, changing regulations, and “repairing it if it breaks” troubleshooting. Transferring personnel and application software to the vendor may be part of AMO.

An accounting method called amortization is used to spread payments out over a predetermined time. Amortization allows businesses to either spread out the cost of an intangible asset over time for accounting and tax purposes or to pay off the debt in equal monthly installments over time (also known as loan amortization) (also known as asset amortization).

AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Service):
U.S.-originated analog cellular standard, now largely obsolete.

AMR (Adaptive Multirate):
With a GSM codec that decreases the codec rate in reaction to interference, operators may save money on capital expenses by lowering the number of cell sites required to support the user base.

Analytic Applications:
Business intelligence (BI) capabilities for a certain domain or business issue are bundled as analytical applications. Traditional, adaptable BI systems frequently lack the “packaging” necessary to promote acceptance across most employees. A user interface designed for informal users, predetermined integration with common business process applications, issue-specific data models, and best-practice templates or wizards are a few examples of packing.

Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP):
Creating the hierarchy of characteristics relevant to choosing the IT vendor.
Determining the traits’ relative relevance. Evaluating the performance of the alternatives with each hierarchy component.
The AHP, which Thomas Saaty created while a professor at the Wharton School of Business at the University of Pennsylvania, is acknowledged as the most influential theory in multicriteria decision-making.

The term “analytics” has come to be used generically to refer to many business intelligence (BI) and application-related projects. Some define it as analyzing data from a certain domain, like website analytics. Others focus on utilizing the depth of BI capabilities in a particular subject area (for example, sales, service, or supply chain). BI providers, in particular, utilize the term “analytics” to set their products apart from the competition. The term “analytics” is increasingly used to refer to statistical and mathematical data analysis that groups, segments, scores, and forecasts the most likely outcomes of various scenarios. Regardless of the application cases, the term “analytics” has become more prevalent in corporate jargon. Business and IT workers interested in utilizing massive amounts of internally generated data are increasingly interested in analytics.

Analytics and Business Intelligence (ABI):
ABI is an umbrella word that refers to the software, infrastructure, tools, and best practices that make it possible to access and analyze information to enhance and optimize actions and decisions.

 Anonymous FTP:
Archive sites where Internet users can log in and download files and programs without a special username or password. Typically, you enter anonymous as a username and your email address as a password. 

Answer Marketplace:
In a social setting known as an answer marketplace, a participant can ask a question, and other participants can add to and improve the responses. Answer marketplaces are feasible in almost every social media setting. Still, they are especially created to make the activity more convenient by providing frameworks that allow an exchange of value, such as money or points. For instance, people who ask a question may provide payment in exchange for an answer, and those who supply the answer may provide a “price” for their knowledge. Both sides may make offers and counteroffers. Reviewing several offers and credentials allows users to select the most appealing one. The method may be open or closed (meaning anonymity is managed as part of the marketplace process). The interaction’s outcomes may also be made public or private.

Both end users and administrators of email systems employ numerous anti-spam strategies to stop email spam. Several of these strategies have been included in goods, services, and software to make things easier for users and administrators. Each method contains trade-offs between mistakenly rejecting good emails and not rejecting any spam, as well as the time and effort expenses involved. No method is a perfect solution to the spam problem. The issue is virtually fully solved by ITAdOn Cloud-Based Anti-SPAM email service. Our cutting-edge solution enables users to view only the email they desire while removing all viruses and unsolicited email before it reaches their PCs and mobile devices.

API Management:
An organization’s ability to publish APIs safely and securely, either internally or externally, depends on a combination of people, processes, and technology known as API management. An API gateway, developer portal, and administrative user interface with reporting and analytics features are examples of common components. Some API management programs provide monetization features.

A tiny application-running program known as an applet. Applets are frequently used to add interactivity to static Web sites. Examples include games, customizable bar charts, moving images, and scrolling messaging. Applets are also crucial in network computers (NCs). They strengthen an NC’s independence from the server since. Once the NC has received the applet, they don’t require communication with the operating system (residential on the server) to work.

Appliances are a broad category of integrated systems and related solutions that span the data center, the personal computer, and software delivery. The market, suppliers with relevant market initiatives, and derivatives can interpret it in various ways. On the other hand, Appliances offer shared technology, hardware, software administration, and services; they are more than just IT bundles with marketing.

Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS):
The hiring process is automated using applicant tracking systems (ATSs). Vendors can now increase the functionality of their solutions for candidate acquisition and self-service thanks to the Internet. The software-as-a-service (SaaS) model continues to be the most popular distribution method in this industry. The vendor environment has continued to consolidate as the market has grown older.

Many e-recruitment suppliers have recently implemented social software capabilities, and practically all of them have it on their roadmaps for future products. The range of functionality offered by different providers differs greatly. Many vendors are attempting to take advantage of social networks like Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter due to social software’s influence. The user experience of hiring managers and candidates needs to be improved to effectively handle several issues. We are addressing social recruitment as a whole.

Application Architecture:
The field of study known as application architecture directs the design of applications.
Application architecture paradigms include principles that affect design choices and patterns that offer tried-and-true design solutions, such as service-oriented architecture (SOA).

Application Control:
Under the more general heading of host-based intrusion prevention systems, application control solutions fall under endpoint (such as desktop and server) security. Advanced application control solutions offer increasing degrees of control over what an application may do while running as it interacts with system resources. Basic application control solutions determine whether a given executable code is authorized to execute.

Application Data Management (ADM):
Application data management (ADM) is a business discipline supported by technology in which business and IT collaborate to guarantee consistency, accuracy, stewardship, governance, semantic consistency, and accountability for data in a business application or suite, such as ERP, custom software, or core banking. Application data is the organized collection of extended attributes and identifiers kept and/or used by an application or suite. These entities include, for instance, clients, vendors, goods, assets, websites, and prices.

Application Delivery Controller (ADC):
By unloading servers, offering comprehensive payload inspection, and making the most of intricate protocols, application delivery controllers (ADC) are used in data centers to increase application performance, security, and resource efficiency. They were initially intended to deliver services for Web applications with an external facing, but they are today used to supply services for many different business applications and protocols. More deployment flexibility is now possible thanks to recent advancements in software-based and virtual ADC systems, particularly in cloud services and virtual environments.

Application Development (AD):
Application Lifecycle Management (ALM), design, construction, automated software quality, and other Application Development software are among the technologies represented in the Application Development (AD) software market.

Application Infrastructure:
Application infrastructure is software platforms for delivering business applications, including development and runtime enablers.

Application Infrastructure Suite (AIS):
Due to the market’s evolution, products that were once referred to as integration suites within this segment are now included with ESB suites. Only application platform suite features are presently available for application infrastructure suites. Application platform suites are collections of portals, middleware for integration, business component engineering, and BPM. They are designed to accommodate numerous project styles, such as process integration, new SOA applications, and composite applications.

Application Integration:
The process of allowing separately created programs to cooperate is called application integration. Frequently needed abilities include:

  • maintaining consistency between various copies of the data (in independently built programs)
  • coordinating the coordinated flow of numerous actions carried out by various applications
  • giving users access to information and features from various programs that were each independently created using what seems to be a single user interface or application service

 Application Life Cycle Management Platform as a Service (ALM PaaS):

ALM PaaS (application life cycle management platform as a service) solutions are cloud-delivered technologies created to control the creation and distribution of software. These technologies integrate fundamental ALM features with Web service-based flexibility and cloud infrastructure delivery. ALM PaaS tools can support both on-premises and cloud apps.

Application Management:
To manage custom applications, packaged software applications, or network-delivered apps, application management offers a wide range of application services, procedures, and approaches.

Application Modernization Services:
Application modernization services deal with transferring legacy applications to new platforms or applications and integrating new functionality to give the business the newest features. Several modernization alternatives are available, including re-platforming, re-hosting, recoding, rearchitecting, re-engineering, interoperability, replacement, and retirement. The application architecture may also be modified to help choose the best action.

Application Obfuscation:
Application obfuscation refers to a group of technologies used to defend against application-level attacks, reverse engineering, and hacking efforts on an application and its embedded intellectual property (IP). Application obfuscation solutions shield the application code from hackers who can readily reverse-engineer IP included in software thanks to the rising use of intermediate language representations (like Java and.NET).

Application Outsourcing:
A wide range of application services is covered under application outsourcing arrangements, including new development, legacy system maintenance, offshore programming, management of packaged applications, and staff augmentation. Although personnel transfers are typically included in this type of outsourcing, the phrase has recently been expanded to cover situations when they are not, such as staff augmentation. Activities involving system integration are excluded.

Application Performance Monitoring (APM):
Digital experience monitoring (DEM), application discovery, tracing, and diagnostics, as well as specially developed artificial intelligence for IT operations, are all parts of the monitoring software suite known as “application performance monitoring” (APM).

Application Platform as a Service (PaaS):
service-based application platforms A cloud service called (PaaS) provides environments for developing and deploying application services.

Application Program:
Often known as system software, software programs can be either supervisory or application programs. Application programs include directives that delegate execution to the system software to carry out input/output operations and other rudimentary tasks via the application programming interface (API).

Application Programming Interface (API):
A database or application’s data can be accessed programmatically through an application programming interface (API), which is an interface. It can be a foundation for creating novel interactions with people, other apps, or intelligent gadgets. Companies launch a platform business model using APIs to meet the demands of a digital transformation or ecosystem.

Application Release Automation (ARA):
Often used for Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE), and.NET applications, application release automation (ARA) tools concentrate on the modeling and deployment of bespoke application software releases and their associated customizations. Versioning is a feature provided by these tools to support best practices for integrating related artifacts, applications, configurations, and data throughout the application life cycle. Deploying continuous releases is supported by ARA tools. Workflow engines are frequently incorporated to aid in automating and monitoring human tasks.

Application Server:
Business applications are delivered by a high-end application server designed for online transaction processing with guaranteed performance, availability, and integrity levels. Following the nature of the business application and the standards in the specific industry for which the application has been created, an application server also supports a variety of application design patterns. Although most have a special preference for one or two, it normally supports various programming languages and deployment platforms. Some application servers, like Java Enterprise Edition (Java EE), that implement common application interfaces and protocols, are wholly proprietary. Currently, proprietary application servers are not available as stand-alone products; instead, they are frequently included in operating systems, packaged programs (such as portals and e-commerce solutions), or other goods. Business applications are delivered by a high-end application server designed for online transaction processing with guaranteed performance, availability, and integrity levels. Following the nature of the business application and the standards in the specific industry for which the application has been created, an application server also supports a variety of application design patterns. Although most have a special preference for one or two, it normally supports various programming languages and deployment platforms. Some application servers, like Java Enterprise Edition (Java EE), that implement common application interfaces and protocols, are wholly proprietary. Currently, proprietary application servers are not available as stand-alone products; instead, they are frequently included in operating systems, packaged programs (such as portals and e-commerce solutions), or other goods..

Application Service Provider (ASP):
An organization is referred to as an application service provider (ASP) if it uses a rental or usage-based transaction-pricing model to supply application functionality and related services to many customers across a network. The supply of standardized application software across a network, though not specifically or only the Internet, via an outsourcing agreement based on usage-based transaction pricing is what Gartner refers to as the application service provider (ASP) market. The ASP industry comprises a variety of service providers (including independent software suppliers, network/telecommunications providers, and Web hosting and IT outsourcing).

Application Sharing:
Application sharing allows two or more users to simultaneously and equally control the contents of a document within an application (such as a word processing document, spreadsheet, or presentation slide) across a local area network, wide-area network, or modem connection. Enables people to collaborate on the same documents remotely with shared editing and control rights. one of the data conferencing components.

Application Software Services:
Back-office, ERP, and supply chain management (SCM) software services and collaborative and individual software services are all included in the application software services segment. It also includes front-office CRM software services and engineering software.

Application, Channel, Technology, And Industry (ACT I):
The “survival locations” for vendors of integrated document management (IDM) are referred to by the Gartner term ACT I. A survival location is a market sector where a vendor may create a long-lasting competitive advantage. For a vendor to succeed in the long run in any market, there must be a critical mass of sustainable competitive advantage.

Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC):
An application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) is a chip on which the pattern of connections has been set up exclusively for a specific function.

Application-Specific Standard Product (ASSP):
An integrated circuit (IC) offered to multiple users and devoted to a particular application market is known as an application-specific standard product (ASSP). ASSPs, a subclass of embedded programmable logic, integrate digital, mixed-signal, and analog products. Gartner refers to such ICs as “application-specific integrated circuits” when sold to a single user.

A program designed for a specific purpose, such as word processing or graphic design. 

Applications Portfolio Analysis (APA):
Applications portfolio analysis (APA) is a tool for classifying existing and planned applications into three groups based on how much they improve the performance of the enterprise: utility, enhancement, and frontier. Payroll is an example of a utility category that is necessary but does not improve the performance of the enterprise; enhancement category applications are those that enhance the performance of the enterprise through the use of established technology, and frontier category applications aim to significantly improve the enterprise performance but typically carry a high level of risk. Cost, chance identification, and innovation are the respective management concerns for each category. The three areas should be balanced as best as possible to achieve the best possible performance in the future and the right value from the planning process.

Architected Rapid Application Development (ARAD):
Architected rapid application development (ARAD), which integrates design and analysis patterns and frameworks, evolved from object-oriented analysis and design tools. Typically, patterns, frameworks, and (optional) models can help businesses produce 50% to 70% of their source artifacts. Organizations are increasingly using a hybrid strategy that combines agile concepts and practices with conventional iterative methodologies like ARAD.

The general layout of a computing system and the logical and physical connections between its parts as it relates to computers, software, or networks. The system’s hardware, software, access procedures, and protocol usage are all outlined in the design.
A plan and set of rules for creating new systems. IT architecture is a set of guiding principles, norms, or regulations that an organization uses to steer the process of acquiring, constructing, altering, and integrating IT resources across the firm. These resources are a few examples of equipment, software, communications, development processes, modeling tools, and organizational structures.

 Artificial Intelligence (AI):
Artificial intelligence (AI) applies advanced analysis and logic-based techniques, including machine learning, to interpret events, support and automate decisions, and take action.

Artificial Intelligence Model Operationalization (ModelOps):
A set of skills called “artificial intelligence (AI) model operationalization” (ModelOps) focuses on the governance and total life cycle management of all AI and decision models. This encompasses artificial intelligence (AI), knowledge graphs, rules, optimization, natural language processing, and agent-based models. Models focus on operationalizing all AI and decision models, as opposed to MLOps (which exclusively focuses on the operationalization of ML models) and AIOps (AI for IT operations).

Assemble To Order:
A product or service can be created to a specific order using the “assemble-to-order” technique, which enables many items to be put together from standard parts in different ways. This necessitates sophisticated planning procedures concentrating on mass customizing final goods to individual consumers while anticipating changing demand for internal components or accessories.

Asset Performance Management (APM):
The capabilities of data capture, integration, visualization, and analytics are all included in asset performance management (APM), specifically designed to increase the availability and dependability of physical assets. Condition monitoring, predictive forecasting, and reliability-centered maintenance are all concepts included in APM (RCM).

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), a wide-area network (WAN) technology, is a switching and transmission transfer method that effectively and flexibly arranges information into cells. It is asynchronous in that the recurrence of cells relies on the needed or instantaneous bit rate. Thus, when data is waiting, empty cells do not pass past. The key to ATM’s strong versatility is its potential to offer a protocol-, speed-, and distance-independent, high-capacity, low-latency switching fabric for all forms of information, including data, video, image, and voice. ATM offers virtual data circuits with speeds ranging from 45 Mbps to 622 Mbps and fixed-length cells with a 53-byte length. Cells from numerous sources are multiplexed onto a single physical circuit via statistical multiplexing. Faster processing rates can be achieved with straightforward hardware circuits thanks to the fixed-length fields in the cell that include routing information utilized by the network. The major advantage of ATM is its capacity to handle a variety of communications services while maintaining transport independence.

ASCII file:
A file that practically any computer can open and read using a typical text editor tool (like Notepad or Simple Text). Additionally known as “plain text files.” Examples include ASCII-formatted texts saved in word processors like Microsoft Word or WordPerfect, HTML files, and emails produced by programs like Outlook.

Asynchronous Transmission:
Each information character, and occasionally each word or short block, is separately synchronized during an asynchronous transmission process, often accomplished using start and stop elements.

Attenuation is a signal’s magnitude reduction during transmission between two sites due to the transmission medium. Decibels are typically used to express attenuation.

Employee attrition is when workers leave a company for whatever cause (voluntarily or involuntarily), such as retirement, termination, death, or resignation. The attrition rate is calculated by dividing the rate at which employees depart a business by the typical number of employees over a specific time.

 AT command set:
An established set of commands for operating modems that start with the letters “AT.” As an illustration, ATDT instructs the modem to dial (D) via touch-tone dialing (T). Pulse dialing is specified by ATDP (P). additionally known as the “Hayes Command Set.”

A file that is transmitted with an email message in this situation. Other files must be encoded and sent individually; ASCII (plain text) files may be attached to the message content (common formats that can be selected include MIME, BinHex, and Uuencode).

Audio Mining/speech Analytics:
Audio mining and speech analytics use tools such as transcription, phonetic analysis, and keyword mining to glean information from prerecorded voice streams. This knowledge may then be applied to categorize calls, start workflows and alerts, and improve personnel and operational performance throughout the company.

Augmented Analytics:
To improve how people explore and understand data in analytics and BI systems, enhanced analytics enables technologies like machine learning. It AI to help with data preparation, insight production, and explanation. By automating numerous steps in the development, management, and deployment of data science, machine learning, and AI model, it also supports the work of expert and citizen data scientists.

Augmented Intelligence:
A design pattern for a human-centered partnership model called augmented intelligence envisions people and artificial intelligence (AI) cooperating to improve cognitive function, including learning, decision-making, and novel experiences.

Augmented Reality (AR):
The utilization of information in the form of text, pictures, music, and other virtual upgrades that are combined with physical items is known as augmented reality (AR). This “real world” component sets augmented reality apart from virtual reality. Unlike a simulation, augmented reality (AR) integrates and enhances the user’s engagement with the real environment.

Authentication Service:
An authentication service is a method for securely authenticating the identities of network clients by servers and vice versa without assuming the integrity of any party’s operating system. It is equivalent to using passwords on time-sharing systems (e.g., Kerberos).

Authentication Technologies:
Products and services that use various authentication techniques in place of outdated password-based authentication are referred to as authentication technologies.

Automated Document Factory (ADF):
The Gartner term refers to an architecture and set of procedures to control the production and distribution of high-volume, mission-critical digital documents. Raw resources, such as data and preparation instructions, enter the ADF, where they are converted into digital documents and made ready for delivery. The ADF uses factory production concepts in the document manufacturing process.

Automated Payment Tracking And Reconciliation Services:
The tracking of payments and related documents (invoices and collections) and the release of payments are all made possible by automated payment tracking and reconciliation systems. Reconciliation of transactions, cash application, liquidity analysis, and updating of credit positions are all made possible by the bank’s connection to the customer’s general ledger. Items that are exceptions are marked for more investigation.

Automated System Operations (ASO):
Automated system operations (ASO), sometimes known as “lights-out operations,” is a mix of hardware and software that enables a computer installation to run unattended or without the requirement for a human operator to be present at the installation’s location.

Automated Teller Machine (ATM):
An automated teller machine (ATM) is public banking equipment typically connected to a central computer through multiplexed data networks and leased local lines.

The procedure for identifying yourself and having your identity confirmed. You should enter your username and password on computers to access restricted information.

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A backbone is a high-speed line or network of lines that creates the network’s quickest (in terms of bandwidth) path. Often, it serves as a metanetwork.

Bandwidth can be defined as follows:

  1. The frequency range that can travel across a specific transmission channel. The circuit’s bandwidth governs the speed at which data can be carried through it; the more bandwidth, the more data can be sent in a given time. Bits per second are generally used to gauge bandwidth. Network planners now prioritize expanding bandwidth capacity due to the proliferation of multimedia, particularly videoconferencing, and the rise in Internet usage. 

  2. A modulated signal’s signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is evaluated over a range of frequencies on either side of the carrier frequency. Another name for this range is bandwidth. Video discs frequently use 15 kilohertz (kHz) on either side.

whereby businesses prepare for the restoration of their complete operational system. This includes a strategy for any other resources needed in the business process, as well as workspaces, phones, workstations, servers, software, network connections, and other resources.

Organizational analytics, encompassing historical, present, and predictive perspectives of business operations, are referred to as “business intelligence” in the industry. Business intelligence (BI) services are provided to design, develop, and deploy business processes and integrate, maintain, and manage the associated platforms and applications. These include data warehousing infrastructure, analytics requirements, and business and infrastructure applications for BI platforms. Along with the standard BI platform, data warehouse/data infrastructure, and data quality sectors, solutions also cover corporate performance management (CPM) and analytics.

Binary file:
A file is incompatible with common text editors like Notepad or Simple Text. Examples include documents produced by programs like Word or WordPerfect or DOS files with the “.com” or “.exe” extension.

A typical Macintosh file format that facilitates the delivery of binary files over the Internet as ASCII files. A file can be encoded and renamed with a “.hqx” extension using a tool like Stuffit. The file is decoded by the recipient using a similar application.

The most elementary piece of data a computer can recognize and the process is a binary digit, which can be either 0 or 1.

Blended learning:
Instruction that incorporates elements of both in-person (F2P) and online learning situations. At OSU, this mixture is now offered in an expanding number of courses.

A blog, a shortened version of “weblog,” is a website that makes it simple for visitors to add entries in the past tense. The entries are typically archived regularly and then shown in reverse chronological order (the most recent entry is shown first). Although blogs are typically used to express thoughts on current affairs like sports, music, fashion, or politics, they have evolved over the past three years as trusted platforms for business and personal communication. “Microblogging” has developed because of social media sites like Twitter, which not only let people exchange 140-character updates with the world but also operate as an impressive platform for news and taste-sharing because a blogger or journalist can utilize it to convey information.

A low-power wireless networking technology called Bluetooth uses the unlicensed 2.4 GHz Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band for operation. Bluetooth devices fall into two categories: Class 1 and Class 2. Class 1 devices have a higher output power and a range of approximately 100 meters, whereas Class 2 devices have lesser power and a range of approximately 10 meters. Up to eight devices can network ad hoc via Bluetooth (supporting voice and data). Established by IBM, Intel, Ericsson, Nokia, and Toshiba in 1998, the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) is more than 2,500 organizations that support it. The Bluetooth v.1.0 specification, which enabled data rates up to 1Mbps, was approved and released in 1999. The enhanced data rate (EDR) specification for Bluetooth Version 2.1 was approved in March 2007. It supports communication rates of up to 3 Mbps and streamlines “pairing,” the procedure for securely connecting two Bluetooth devices. Additionally, it decreased power consumption, doubling the battery life of mobile devices such as headsets, for which Bluetooth radio accounts for a significant portion of the power budget. In April 2009, the SIG approved Version 3.0 (“Seattle”), which integrated Wi-Fi as a substitute transport layer for large amounts of data and supported data rates of up to 24 Mbps.

A typical image format on Windows computers is the bitmap file. This type of file’s name typically includes the extension “.bmp.”

A function found in several applications, such as Internet Explorer, Firefox, and Acrobat Reader, allows you to quickly access a specific online page or point inside a document (PDF).

Boolean logic:
A type of algebra where every value is simplified to one of the following: true, false, yes, no, on, off, or 1/0.

When an email message is returned to you as undeliverable, this phrase is used to describe it. The percentage of sessions where a person loads a webpage but instantly leaves without taking any further action is known as the bounce rate.

Bridges are devices that join two Local Area Networks (LANs) or two sections of a single LAN. They simply forward packets without inspecting or rerouting them.

Broadband connection:
A high-speed Internet connection; at the moment, the two technologies that are most widely used to enable such access are cable modems and DSL (Digital Subscriber Lines). Broadband channels can simultaneously transmit speech, data, and video because they are carried via coaxial or fiber-optic cables with greater bandwidth than traditional telephone lines. Broadband connectivity uses digital subscriber lines (DSL) and cable modems as examples.

A browser is a software used to search for and present data on the Internet or an intranet. Web pages are most frequently accessed through browsers. The majority can show text, graphics, and images; however, some multimedia content (such as sound and video) may need additional software, also known as “plug-ins.”

When sending data from one device to another, a buffer is a storage device that helps make up for differences in the pace of data flow or the timing of events.

Data that is gathered but not immediately made accessible. As opposed to offering a word-for-word translation, a language translator would listen to the entire statement before repeating what the speaker had said. A tool like Real Media Player can display streaming media data that is buffered.

Business continuity:
Business continuity refers to the activity carried out by an organization to guarantee that essential business functions will be accessible to clients, suppliers, regulators, and other entities that require those functions to be available. Numerous daily tasks like project management, system backups, change control, and help desk is included in these operations. Business continuity refers to the everyday activities to sustain service, consistency, and recoverability. It is not something that is implemented at the time of a disaster. Please click here to learn more.

Business continuity plan:
Businesses plan to recover their entire business process through business continuity planning (BCP), a comprehensive catastrophe recovery strategy. This includes a strategy for any other resources needed in the business process, as well as workspaces, phones, workstations, servers, software, network connections, and other resources. Please click here to learn more.

Bring your device (BYOD) is an alternate method that enables users to run enterprise apps and access data on a client device they have personally chosen and purchased. Typically, it covers tablets and smartphones, although the approach can also be used on PCs. A subsidy could be part of it.

A collection of nearby binary numbers that a computer combines to create a character, like the letter “C,” in a single operation. Eight bits make up a byte. The intermediate code created and run by a virtual machine is known as “byte code” (VM). Any platform on which the VM runs supports the use of byte code in the same manner.


Cable modem:
A unique kind of modem that attaches to a nearby cable TV line to offer constant access to the Internet. A cable modem sends and receives data similar to an analog modem but with substantially quicker transfer rates. A cable modem can achieve roughly 1.5 Mbps, although a 56 Kbps modem can only receive data at about 53 Kbps (about 30 times faster). A 10Base-T Ethernet card inside your computer is where cable modems are connected.

An instruction and temporary data storage space close to a computer’s central processing unit (CPU), typically implemented in high-speed memory, is referred to as a cache. It uses fewer resources than the source to copy data from main memory or storage to speed up access. Data can be retrieved faster since it is nearer to the CPU.

To ascertain if the user is a person or an automated bot, a challenge-response test in the form of an image of distorted text must be completed.

Carrier services:
ITAdOn will offer your business the most suitable and affordable carrier solutions because they are accredited agents for the top names in the telecoms sector. All of your voice, data, Internet, and conferencing solutions will be designed, implemented, and supported by ITAdOn.

Usually refers to a data input field; case-sensitive restrictions prevent lower-case letters from having the same meaning as their upper-case counterparts. As an illustration, “data” is not recognized as the same word as “Data” or “DATA.”

Computer-based training is a style of instruction where students use specialized computer software to learn a particular application. A computer application used to support a teacher or trainer in the classroom may also be referred to as “CAI” (Computer-Assisted Instruction) or “CBI” (Computer-Based Instruction), or both.

CD-R drive:
A kind of disk drive that can burn both audio CDs and CD-ROMs. Multi-session CD-R drives enable you to keep adding data to a compact disk, which is crucial if you intend to use the drive for backup.

Compact Disk, Read-Only Memory; a secondary storage device with a large capacity. A CD only allows for read-only access to the data. For the creation of fresh CDs, the OIT Multimedia Lab has specialized CD-ROM mastering equipment that can be reserved.

CD-RW, CD-R disk:
You can add data to a CD-RW disk more than once instead of simply one (a CD-R disk). With a CD-R drive, you can use a CD-RW disk to create CD-ROMs and audio CDs and back up data in the same way you would a floppy or zip disk.

When a Web server needs to communicate or receive data from an application, such as a database, the Common Gateway Interface (CGI) standard is utilized. The Web server sends the request to a database, where a CGI script retrieves the results and sends them back to the Web client.

Real-time interaction between two or more users using computers connected to a network. Any user may type a message that will appear on the monitors of all other participants after entering a discussion (or chat room). Although most ISPs provide chat, OIT does not support it. However, the campus CMS (Carmen) that TELR supports does enable live chat amongst students enrolled in online courses.

A software or system that asks one or more servers, sometimes known as other systems or programs, to do certain tasks. Typically, the client is the workstation in a client/server setup. 

Client-server technology:
Refers to a connection between two networked computers where one computer (the server) receives a request from the other for its services (the client). The client computer then locally processes the information that was retrieved.

The Cloud is a common abbreviation for a cloud computing service offered (or perhaps an accumulation of all current cloud services). For further information, please check here.

Cloud computing:
A broad phrase for Internet services includes social networking services (like Facebook and Twitter), online backup services, and browser-based applications. Computer networks connected via the Internet for server redundancy or cluster computing are also considered a part of cloud computing.

Marketing professionals and their agents (such as webmasters) can create and manage text, graphics, pictures, audio, and video for use in Web landing pages, blogs, document repositories, campaigns, or any other marketing activity requiring single or multimedia content with the help of content management systems, which are made up of a set of templates, procedures, and standard format software.

The technique of reducing a file’s size to save disk space and speed up network transport. The most popular compression tools are Winrar (.zip files) for PCs and compatible devices and Stuffit (.sit files) for Macs.

A phrase frequently used to describe connecting to a remote computer, it’s also the name of the message that appears when two modems recognize one another.

A piece of code that is permanently stored in a file on a computer’s hard drive by a website that the user has visited. The code “registers,” or uniquely identifies, that person and can be used for various marketing and website tracking reasons.

Coordinated Vulnerability Disclosure (CVD)

Coordinated Vulnerability Disclosure (CVD) is a process where security researchers and software vendors work together to responsibly report and address vulnerabilities. It involves sharing information about the vulnerability in a coordinated manner, allowing the vendor to develop patches and protect users from potential security risks. An example of this is when Microsoft’s researchers were able to identify and disclose the Migraine vulnerability, leading to Apple promptly addressing and patching the security flaw.


Software created especially for use in a school environment.

The part of a computer system in charge of command interpretation and execution. A PC’s central processing unit (CPU) consists of a single microprocessor. In contrast, a mainframe’s more powerful CPU comprises many processing units—in some cases, hundreds. Often, a CPU is referred to as a “processor.”

A business model for offering cloud services is the cloud service provider. Please click here to learn more.

CSS is a set of guidelines that specify how web pages should be shown. With the use of CSS, designers may establish guidelines that specify how the page

A unique symbol shows you where the next character you type will display on your screen. The pointer on your screen can be moved around using either your mouse or the arrow keys on your keyboard.

A phrase used to describe the usage of computers in society.


Desktop as a Service (DaaS) is a service that offers consumers a virtualized desktop experience that is given on demand from a remote hosting site. It entails allocating resources to host workloads and provisioning, patching, and maintaining the management plane.

A unique, little program that carries out a particular function; it may run continuously, watching a system, or operate just when a function is required. For instance, you might get a notification from the mailer daemon if an email message is returned to you as undeliverable.

It can be compared to an electronic file system in that data collection is arranged so that a computer application can easily retrieve certain data. In conventional databases, fields, records (a complete set of fields), and files are structured (a collection of records). As an alternative, any object (such as text, a photograph, or a movie) in a hypertext database can be connected to any other object.

The division of an organization responsible for housing and maintaining the organization’s mainframes, servers, and databases is known as the data center. When big, centralized IT operations were prevalent, this division and all of the systems were housed in a single physical location, giving rise to the moniker “data center.”

Due to today’s more dispersed computing techniques, single data center facilities are still widespread but are dwindling in number. No matter how far out these systems are, the phrase is still used to describe the department in charge.

The way businesses approach their data center strategy is evolving due to market and sector dynamics. Several forces are compelling enterprises to look beyond traditional technological infrastructure silos and change how they see their data center environments and operational procedures. These include ongoing cost sensitivity, the need for greater energy efficiency, and aging data center infrastructures that run the danger of not fulfilling future business requirements.

Restoring a file to its original size and format is the opposite of compressing a file. The most popular tools for decompressing files are Stuffit Expander (.sit files) for Macintosh computers and Winrar (.zip files) for PCs and related devices.

The technique of rewriting bits of a file to contiguous sectors on a hard disk boosts access and retrieval speed. 

A procedure used to eliminate magnetism from a computer display. Note that flat-panel displays do not have a degauss button, as magnetism doesn’t build up.

The background where windows, disk icons, and program icons live on IBM PCs and Macs.

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol assigns temporary IP addresses to computers and other network devices on a local network.

A way to remove the magnetism from a computer monitor. Flat-panel displays don’t have a degauss button because magnetic fields don’t build up inside them.

On computers like IBM PCs and Macintoshes, the screen behind which windows and icons for drives and programs are located.

In a local area network, a server may use the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol to assign a computer or other network device a temporary IP address (DHCP).

Dialog box:
On a graphical user interface system, a program or process may display what is sometimes referred to as a window to prompt a user to enter data into one or more boxes (fields).

Dial-Up Adapter:
A Windows network component that supports modem connections to dial-up servers. A Dial-Up Adapter must be installed and correctly configured before users may use dial-up connections with Windows computers.

Dial-up connection:
A connection is made from your computer using a standard phone line. You utilize specialized communications software to tell your modem to call a number to connect to another computer system or network. Alternatively known as “dial-up networking.”

Digital asset:
Anything uniquely recognized kept digitally and used by companies to realize value is considered a digital asset. Documents, music, video, logos, slide shows, spreadsheets, and websites are a few digital assets.

Digitize is to change from analog into digital form. The process of converting an image, a sound, or a video clip into a digital format for usage on a computer; is sometimes known as digital imaging. Also used to describe how coordinates on a map are transformed into x and y coordinates for computer input. A series of zeros and ones must be used to digitally encode all data that a computer processes.

A tiny circuit board that can house a collection of memory chips is called a dual in-line memory module. Instead of the 32 bits that each SIMM can manage, a DIMM can transfer 64 bits. SIMMs must be installed two at a time rather than one at a time when installing DIMMs because Pentium processors need a 64-bit path to memory.

A location on a disk that houses files or extra groups of folders or subdirectories. When files are sorted into distinct categories, such as by application, category, or usage, directories can help.

Disaster recovery
The process, policies and processes involved in being ready for the restoration or continuance of the technological infrastructure that is essential to an organization following a natural or man-made disaster are known as disaster recovery measures. Business continuity is a subcategory of disaster recovery. While disaster recovery focuses on the IT or technology systems that support company processes, business continuity entails planning for keeping all areas of an organization operating even in the face of disruptive occurrences. You may have complete peace of mind knowing that your crucial systems and processes are protected and/or that you can recover from any potential data loss situation with the support of ITAdOn’s expert Disaster Recovery Consulting Team. Please click here to learn more.

Disaster recovery planning:
Making preparations to ensure the prompt restoration of information technology assets and services in the event of a disaster like a fire, flood, or hardware malfunction.

Discussion group:
Another term for an online newsgroup or forum. 

Distance education:
The terms “online learning” and “eLearning” are also acceptable. A method of instruction suggests a teacher and pupils are separated by time and/or space during the course. Asynchronous or synchronous interactions are both possible (self-paced). Students might use various course materials or platforms like chat or discussion groups to collaborate on assignments.

Distance learning:
The purpose of distance learning; the terms distance learning and distance education are frequently used synonymously.

A technique for changing the pattern of dots to provide the appearance of different hues and shades; the more dither patterns a device or application can support, the more shades of gray it can represent, in the context of printing, also known as halftoning.

Domain Name System is a service that allows users to access networked computers using their names rather than their (IP) addresses.

An Internet address’s first part. There are domains and subdomains in the network structure. Major categories like com, edu, and government are shown at the top, followed by domains that fall under those categories like Ohio-state and subdomains. In the hierarchy, the computer name is at the bottom. A domain name, which consists of at least two segments separated by periods, is a distinctive identifier for an Internet site or Internet Protocol (IP) network address. The Web Internet Registry, where top-level domains are registered, charges an annual operating fee.

Transferring a file from a server or other computing device to a computer through a network. The way you connect to the network can have a big impact on how long downloads take.

The resolution of a printer is measured in dots per inch. The print quality improves as the number rises. A resolution of at least 300 dpi is typically needed for professional-quality printing.

In a natural disaster or server failure, disaster recovery as a service aids data recovery.

Drag and drop:
Selecting one icon and placing it on top of another to start a particular activity. As an illustration, drag a file over a folder to copy it to a different location.

A method for voice lines to access high-speed networks or the Internet. There are several types, including symmetric DSL (SDSL), very-high-bit-rate DSL, high-bit-rate DSL (HDSL), and asymmetric DSL (ADSL) (VDSL). The term “xDSL” is sometimes used to describe the entire group.

Digital video disks are a type of compact disc that can store far more data than CD-ROMs, typically used to store music files. A DVD can store at least 4.7 GB, sufficient for a feature-length film. Video data is compressed using MPEG-2 for DVD storage. DVD drives can play CD-ROMs and are backward-compatible.

DVD-RW, DVD-R disk:
Instead of only allowing you to write data onto a DVD-R disk once, a DVD-RW disk allows you to write data onto it several times. A full-length movie can be stored on a DVD with a minimum storage capacity of 4.7GB. Storage for multimedia presentations with sound and graphics is another purpose for DVDs.


Extensible authentication protocol (EAP) is A framework, and transport for other network access authentication protocols, the extensible authentication protocol (EAP) is extensible. By utilizing the Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) and Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol, the original dial-up Point-To-Point Protocol (PPP) only offered minimal security (CHAP). EAP was added to facilitate more complex authentication, especially on wireless networks.

An extended Graphics Adapter, a card (or board) that allows the monitor to display 640 pixels horizontally and 350 pixels vertically, is typically seen in older PCs.

Web-based learning, computer-based training, virtual classrooms, and online collaboration are just a few examples of activities under the umbrella term “electronic learning.” Content can be distributed in many other ways, including the Internet, satellite broadcast, interactive TV, and DVD- or CD-ROMs.

Electronic mail is sending and receiving messages between users linked to the same system or over a network (often the Internet). A new message is kept for later retrieval if a user is not logged on when it arrives.

Email archiving:
In most cases, email archiving is a standalone IT solution that works with a business email server like Microsoft Exchange. These programs use various technical implementation techniques to do more than just collect email messages; they index stored messages and offer rapid, searchable access independent of system users. The protection of mission-critical data, record keeping for legal or regulatory needs, and decreased production email server load are just a few reasons a business could decide to implement an email archiving system. The most recent storage technologies are provided to you by ITAdOn’s cloud-based email archiving service in a safe, redundant, and simple manner. From setting up our archiving software to automatically transferring the files to our secure remote servers, we take care of all the little details.

A string of keyboard symbols intended to depict a facial emotion. Similar to how voice tone is utilized in spoken conversations, this is frequently employed in electronic communications to communicate a specific meaning. Examples are the symbols for a wink or a happy face.

Emulation is the ability of a program or device to act like another program or device. For example, drivers for terminal emulation are often included with communications software, which lets you connect to a mainframe. Some programs can make a Mac work like a PC.

A bit stream is usually encrypted before it is sent so that people who shouldn’t be able to read it can’t.

Encapsulated PostScript is a graphics format that describes a picture using the PostScript language.

Xerox invented the baseband local area network (LAN), later backed by Hewlett-Packard, Digital Equipment (now Compaq Computer), and Intel. It has a bus topology with CSMA/CD access control or carrier sense multiple access with collision detection. IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 802.3 differs from Ethernet. Related terms consist of:

Ethernet address, commonly known as a MAC address, is a 48-bit Layer 2 networking code maintained by the IEEE and hardwired into network adapters.
Ethernet coaxial thick cable is appropriate for medium- to large-sized networks or those with widely dispersed nodes.

  • Ethernet, thin: Only appropriate for small networks with closely spaced nodes. Ethernet coaxial wire.

Ethernet card:
An adapter card that connects to Ethernet cabling and fits inside of computers; different types of adaptor cards fit different types of computers. All laptops connected to the campus network contain an Ethernet card of some description. An illustration would be computers connected to ResNet in university offices or dorm rooms. Additionally known as an “Ethernet adaptor.”

Expansion card:
A circuit board that you can plug into a slot within your computer to offer new capabilities is also known as an expansion board. A card can be inserted into an empty slot or used to replace an existing one. Examples include internal modem cards, sound, graphics, USB, and Firewire.

The file type is indicated by a suffix followed by a period at the end of a filename. A file with the ending “.exe” is an executable file on a Windows computer.


Female connector:
A cable connection with holes that inserts into a port or interface to connect two devices.

A single piece of data is stored in a database (e.g., an entry for name or address). A distinct region within a dialog box or window where information can be input is also referred to as.

A nameless collection of data (called the filename). Almost all data on a computer is saved in some sort of file. Examples: data file (contains data, such as a set of records); executable file (contains an executable program or commands); text file (contains data that can be read using a standard text editor).

A program that converts data into another format (such as a program used to import or export data or a specific file); 2) a pattern that prevents non-matching data from passing through (such as email filters); and 3) a special effect that can be applied to a bit map in paint programs and image editors.

One of many UNIX systems’ varieties of directory services. The format for queries is a first name, last name (for example, jane doe), or for extra information, =firstname.last name (for example, =jane doe).

A firewall is a program or a complete computer (such as an Internet gateway server) that manages network access and keeps an eye on network traffic movement. An external incursion into a private network can be prevented using a firewall, which can filter and block undesirable network traffic. When a local network connects to the Internet, this is very crucial. With the growth of Internet usage, firewalls have emerged as essential software.

A method of connecting various pieces of technology to enable quick and simple information sharing. Like USB, FireWire is known as the IEEE1394 High-Performance Serial Bus. When Apple first developed it in 1995, it came before the advent of USB. As long as the power is on, FireWire devices can be connected and unplugged at any moment since they are hotly pluggable. The term “plug-and-play” refers to how an operating system automatically recognizes a new FireWire device when it is attached to a computer and requests the driver disk.

A little gadget connects to a computer’s USB port and works as a portable hard drive.

An information-preserving form of memory is frequently found in memory cards and USB flash drives for storing and transferring data between computers and other digital products.

A hard drive location that houses a group of related files or the icon for a directory or subdirectory.

An entire set of characters in different sizes and styles, including letters, numerals, and symbols. A huge variety of fonts are available, from formal typefaces for business to those made up of unique characters like math symbols or tiny images.

A function of some web browsers that allows the presentation of a page in independent scrollable windows. Frames can be challenging to translate for text-only reading following ADA rules; hence their use is becoming less and less common.

Free, unlimited personal use is allowed with copyrighted software available for download; anything else requires the author’s written consent. Unlike shareware, copyrighted software necessitates registration and a nominal cost to the author if you choose to keep using a downloaded program.

Fragmentation is the scattering of pieces of a single disk file over a disk’s surface due to the addition and deletion of files.

An Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) standard for listing directories, copying files, and logging into networks. In other words, it allows users to transfer files, list directories, delete and rename files on the foreign host, and perform wild-card transfers in addition to providing user authentication.


Graphics Interchange Format is a file format for images and graphics. This type of file’s name typically includes the extension “.gif.” GIF files are commonly used as images on websites.

Gigabyte (Gig or GB):
It is usually adequate to think of a gigabyte as roughly one billion bytes or 1000 megabytes. A gigabyte is equal to 1024 × 1024 x 1024 (2 to the 30th power) bytes.

Satellites in the Global Positioning System orbiting the Earth. In a more general sense, GPS refers to a GPS receiver that uses the mathematical concept of “trilateration” to pinpoint your location at any given time.

A harmful program or code thought to exist in the “grey area” between legitimate software and a virus is called grey ware (or grayware). All other unwanted or bothersome software, including adware, spyware, trackware, other malicious code, and harmful shareware, is called greyware.

A graphic user interface is a mouse-based system with icons, drop-down menus, and windows where you can point and click to indicate what you want to do. This technology is present in every new Windows and Macintosh computer being marketed.


The initial round of negotiation takes place when two modems have connected. When the modems understand the data transmission protocol (e.g., error correction, packet size, etc.). The protocol is the set of guidelines they decide upon.

Hard disk:
A storage device that can accommodate vast amounts of data, typically in the hundreds of gigabytes to thousands. Some types of hard disk devices are connected independently for usage as extra disk space, even though they are typically internal to the computer. Although the terms “hard disk” and “hard drive” are frequently used interchangeably, the term “hard drive” actually refers to the device that reads data from the disk.

The keyboard, display, disk drive, internal chips, and cables make up a computer’s physical parts. The opposite of software is hardware.

The part of an email or a network newsgroup posting that comes before the message’s content and includes details like the sender, the message’s subject, and the time. Additionally, a header is the part of a packet that comes before the contents and contains extra information the recipient will need.

Help desk:
A help desk is a place where people may go for information and support when they have issues with computers or other comparable devices. Businesses frequently offer toll-free support, a website, and/or email to consumers and employees who need help. ITAdOn provides three different help desk services: private-labeled, outsourced, and 24-7 Support365. Please click here to learn more about our services.

Helper application:
A tool for viewing multimedia files that your web browser can’t handle, the contents must be downloaded to your computer before they can be viewed or played. Comparatively speaking, a plug-in lets you see the file online without first downloading it.

Home page:
A file you access with a web browser, such as Firefox or Internet Explorer. It typically refers to a website’s home page, which also happens to be the page that loads when a browser is launched.

A machine that a user uses a remote connection to access. Also describes a particular computer linked to a TCP/IP network, such as the Internet.

A language used mostly to prepare documents evolved from the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). The user’s browser decodes HTML instructions and formats the screen’s fonts, graphics, and page layout. One of HTML’s more potent features is the ability to construct hyperlinks that let users switch between pages and files with a single click. Additionally, HTTP is occasionally utilized for message attachments to provide rich text formatting across different product boundaries.

The term “dynamically generated HTML,” sometimes mistaken with the Netscape and Microsoft technology known as dynamic HTML, refers to HTML produced by a software or service (DHTML). These technologies provide client-side tools for increasing HTML documents’ and Web browsers’ functionality.

The HyperText Transfer Protocol is a collection of guidelines that spells out how a web server and browser should communicate with one another. An HTTP instruction instructing the webserver to fetch and provide the requested web page is delivered when you open a location (for example, input a URL) in your browser.

A spot on a website where clicking with the mouse will take you to another website. Hyperlinks, often known as “links” or “hot links,” are comparable to hypertext. On the Web, hyperlinks are frequently utilized to fill in the navigational, referencing, and depth gaps left by published material. A graphic or text can be used to generate a hyperlink.

Information that links to additional information; is frequently seen on web pages and online help files. Typically, important words are italicized or underlined. An illustration of a connected topic is when you look up information on “Cats” in a reference book and come across the notation, “Refer also to Mammals.” A link in a hypertext file allows you to jump to the relevant information by clicking on it.

One of the various hardware virtualization methods that enable multiple operating systems, known as guests, to run concurrently on a host computer is a hypervisor, also known as virtual machine management (VMM). It is conceptually one level higher than a supervisory program, hence its name. The hypervisor controls the execution of the guest operating systems and provides the guest operating systems with a virtual operating platform. Multiple instances of different operating systems may share the physical resources that have been virtualized. Hypervisors are installed on server hardware with the sole purpose of running guest operating systems. Similar activities can be performed using non-hypervisor virtualization solutions on dedicated server hardware and frequently on desktop, laptop, and even mobile devices.


IaaS is a standardized, highly automated service model in which computing resources held by a service provider are made available to consumers on demand, together with storage and networking capabilities. Resources are fluid and scalable in almost real-time, metered by consumption. Customers have direct access to self-service interfaces, such as an API and a graphical user interface (GUI). Resources are hosted by the service provider or on-site in a customer’s data center and can be single-tenant or multitenant.

A little image or symbol that symbolizes a certain object or function on a system like Windows or Macintosh that uses a GUI. A file folder for a directory, a rectangle with a rounded corner for a file, or a little graphic for a program are a few examples. 

Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) is a Windows feature that lets you connect a single computer on your home network to the Internet when turned on.

IEEE-1394 port:
The IEEE-1394-port is a plug-and-play interface connecting high-speed serial devices to your computer.

A graphic overlay with many clickable areas (or hot spots) that point to different web pages or anchors. An alternative to text links for pointing users to more information is an image map.

Access Protocol for Internet Messages. IMAP and POP3, which need messages to be transferred to a user’s hard drive before the message can be viewed, differ significantly in this regard. A means of reading email messages on a server without downloading them to your hard drive.

A global network built on the TCP/IP protocol that can link practically every major computer brand or model, from microcomputers to supercomputers. Users with a network connection can perform tasks like processing email or browsing the Web using the accustomed desktop computer interface thanks to specialized software called “clients.”

Internet Explorer:
You can surf the World Wide Web using a client program from Microsoft that is pre-installed on most new PCs or comparable systems.

Internet radio:
Using embedded wireless networking technology (such as a connected “infotainment” head unit) or a wireless consumer device that is connected to the vehicle (such as a user’s smartphone), Internet radio transmits music that is stored on a server to an Internet-connected vehicle. Without keeping any music files on the consumer device or head unit of the car, music is accessible online in both scenarios. In some cases, the streaming service provider permits caching music for the user to listen to when they are offline.

IP address:
A special number that distinguishes a computer on the Internet and is given out by an Internet authority. The number is made up of four sets of 0 to 255-digit numbers that are separated by periods (dots). A good example of an IP address is

A system that permits two or more Internet users to have real-time online conversations is known as Internet Relay Chat.

Refers to a number connected to a serial port on a PC or other compatible computer; interrupt request. Typically, changing it requires flicking a dip switch. The IRQ number allocated to the serial port that links the modem may occasionally need to be changed to avoid conflicts with other devices, such as your mouse, when you’re using a modem to connect to the Internet.

A business that offers its clients access to the Internet. Most ISPs are too tiny to obtain access directly from the network access point (NAP); therefore, they typically purchase bits of bandwidth from bigger ISPs. A modem or a direct connection, which gives far faster rates, can be used to access the Internet.

Although they occasionally offer Internet access, online services differ from Internet service providers. Online services give users access to special databases, forums, and content unavailable elsewhere.

IT Assessment:
Information on a portion of the entire IT network infrastructure is gathered through an IT assessment, which is then presented in a thorough report. Typically, this report assesses the present condition of technology or services, suggests areas for improvement, or makes preparations for a system or application upgrade. IT assessments can be carried out internally or contracted to an IT provider. ITAdOn has created a complete assessment approach that involves doing in-depth, detailed inspections of all of your essential technology areas, comparing them to best practices, and then giving you a plan for better utilizing your IT as a competitive advantage.

The process of ensuring that a project, service, or system adheres to specifications and serves its intended purpose is known as independent verification and validation (IV&V). You might want a third party to evaluate the work’s quality if you recently introduced a new technology solution.


Sun’s Java platform and its Java programming language are called “Java.” A collection of technologies known as the Java platform offer cross-platform, network-centric computing solutions. The Java platform’s programming language is but one component. The Java programming language, which offers a powerful, object-oriented language for building Java components and applications, the Java Virtual Machine (JVM), which provides a uniform Java byte code emulator for Java’s cross-platform runtime environment, the standard Java-class library packages, which offer sets of reusable services that encourage consistency among components and applications, and the Java platform are the components of the Java platform.

The fundamental features of HTML are expanded and complemented by the Java programming language, which is based on C. Java enables the development of apps and application modules (referred to as “applets”) that execute in the browser’s JVM. A JVM is present in Netscape and Microsoft’s browsers. Applications can operate on a wide range of desktop systems as long as those platforms can run a Java-enabled browser since Java’s platform independence and security is built in rather than added on. 

A scripting language designed with the Internet in mind. It is the first scripting language to completely comply with ECMAScript, the only accepted standard scripting language for the Web. Despite its name, JavaScript is not a descendant of Java; it is a language created by Netscape called LiveScript. JavaScript’s syntax is more similar to that of C/C++ than Java.

JPEG stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group, a graphics format that reduces the size of an image. Most images used as web page embeds are GIFs; however, the JPEG format is occasionally employed (especially for detailed graphics or photographs). In some circumstances, clicking the image will cause a larger, higher-resolution version to appear.

A word processing type where the left and right margins of the text are flush. Other choices include right-justified and left-justified, where text is aligned with the left margin (text is lined up against the right margin).


K: A shorthand for kilobyte, which stands for 1,024 bytes. One megabyte is equivalent to 1,024 kilobytes.

Kbps is a unit of measurement for data transfer speed that equals 1,000 bits per second. A 28.8 Kbps modem is an example. 

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) created Kerberos. This authentication system permits the exchange of private data over an open network by allocating a special key known as a “ticket” to a user requesting access to secure data. 

In desktop publishing, kerning adjusts the character spacing on pairs of letters or small text sections. Kerning: The amount of space between characters in a word.

A keyword is an index entry associated with a particular record or document; the term is most frequently used to describe a text editing and database management system feature.

Kilobyte (K, KB or kb):
Kilobyte (K, KB, or Kb) is a unit of measurement for 1,000 bytes comprising 1,024 (2 to the 10th power) bytes. For instance, a 720K diskette can store roughly 720,000 bytes (or characters).

Knowledge base: 
The information used by a knowledge-based or expert system may comprise assertions, rules, objects, and constraints. It is structured using knowledge representations. The system’s developer or a user might only view the representations for the domain knowledge, not the underlying knowledge representations.

Key performance indicators (KPIs) for marketing are particular, quantitative marketing measures that track advancement toward a predetermined objective through marketing channels. Examples comprise:

  • unique users of a website
  • Cost per lead Conversion rate for forms
  • created marketing-qualified leads
  • qualified leads for sales that come from marketing
  • Cost per qualified sales lead
  • Close-out rate
  • customer loyalty
  • Return on marketing investment


A local area network, or LAN, is a network that covers a limited area (usually within a square mile or less). Enables sharing of resources, including software, documents, and printers, between a group of computers. A central file server is frequently where shared files are kept.

 Laser Printer:
A laser printer is a device that creates copies of extraordinarily high quality. It utilizes static electricity on a rotating drum to apply a black powder to paper as a photocopier does. 

In desktop publishing, you can change the leading to make the text easier to read. It refers to the vertical space between lines of text on a page.

Learning management system (LMS):
Course content development, usage, and storage software of many forms. Learning objects are frequently 

Learning object:
A section of course content may be utilized and maintained separately. Although each chunk is unique in terms of content and purpose, it must be able to interface with learning systems in a consistent, non-system-dependent manner. To assist search and retrieval, each chunk must include a description.

A term for the hyperlink. 

A Unix-based operating system, Linux was initially intended to be free software for open-source development. Under the terms of the GNU Public License, anybody may use, modify, and redistribute its source code without restriction. On top of Linux, several GUIs such as GNU Network Object Model Environment and K Desktop Environment function. The most widely used commercial variations of Linux are those from Red Hat (Red Hat Enterprise Linux), Novell (SUSE Enterprise Linux), Ubuntu, and Debian, as well as local variants such as Mandriva, Red Flag, and Asianux. Our segmentation includes the Linux (client) and Linux (server) subsegments.

ListProcessor is a program that manages electronic mailing lists; OIT is in charge of it and responds to requests from the OSU community for new email lists. 

LISTSERV, Listserver:
An electronic mailing list automates electronic mail distribution, giving you a quick and easy way to reach many people. At OSU, mailing lists facilitate and improve classroom instruction and be used for scholarly communication and cooperation.

Log in, log on:
Entering your username and password to access a specific computer, such as a mainframe, network or secure server, or another system with resource-sharing capabilities.


The term “mobile business” (or “m-business”) refers to new business models made possible by the widespread adoption of essential mobile and wireless technologies and devices (such as Bluetooth, e-purses, smartphones, UMTS, and WAP) as well as by the inherent mobility of the majority of people’s work and personal lives. The user can access information or services at any time and location, according to the value proposition of the mobile company.

Machine-to-machine (M2M) communications:
It is employed in the automated measurement and transfer of data between mechanical or electronic equipment. Wireless communication networks with complementing wireline connectivity include, but are not limited to, cellular communication, Wi-Fi, ZigBee, WiMAX, wireless LAN (WLAN), generic DSL (xDSL), and fiber to the x. Field-deployed wireless devices with embedded sensors or RFID (FTTx).

It is a storage technology that uses a focussed laser beam’s magnetization.

Mainstream notebook:
It is a computer system that satisfies all requirements for a notebook PC and was created to strike the finest balance between all-encompassing capabilities and portability. With the weight-saver and battery modules, typical notebooks weigh between 4.5 and 6 pounds. Common notebooks frequently have a single bay to attach a peripheral, like a CD-ROM.

Managed object:
It is a resource that may be used for data processing or data transmission and is manageable via an Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) management protocol. The resource doesn’t need to be an OSI resource. A controlled object could be a piece of hardware, software, an abstract grouping of data, or any combination of the three.

Management information base (MIB):
The database used to describe monitored devices is a flat-file, non-relational Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) database.

Manufacturing planning:
It refers to the weekly or daily production and machine schedules across many facilities or lines to fulfill orders and anticipate demand. Materials planning is included in several industrial planning modules.

Margin call:
It is a request made by a broker to add money to a brokerage account within a certain time frame to make up for lost investments. It happens when an investment experiences enough losses to fall below the maintenance threshold that the brokerage that manages the funds for the investment requires.

Marketing Analytics:
It is a catch-all phrase for a market that includes analytics elements in specialized products and end-to-end marketing platforms. Marketers can use these platforms and tools to better understand prospects and consumers and their behaviors across channels to gather, analyze, model, and visualize data.

Marketing automation system:
This system offers a scripting environment for creating business rules and interfaces to numerous third-party apps, assisting marketers in executing multichannel marketing campaigns.

Marketing Cloud:
A single vendor provides an integrated set of marketing tools or solutions.

Marketing database system:
The database system was created to address marketers’ unique analytical and application requirements.

Marketing mix modeling: 
It alludes to analytical methods that assist marketers in comprehending and simulating the effect of advertising (volume decomposition) and in optimizing strategies and the mode of delivery. It is now being used to model and examine trade-offs between trade and consumer spending. Managers with P&L responsibility can also benefit from using marketing mix modeling to assess ROI by strategy. For instance, if I invest $1, I can expect to receive X through advertising and Y from a customer promotion. This aids marketers in choosing where to invest wisely, depending on their success metrics.

Marketing performance management (MPM): 
It includes all the tools and services that assist marketing’s ability to access information, evaluate data, create projections, and best utilize marketing campaigns, programs, and resources. At its core, MPM consists of an analytical workbench, BI tools, and a data store. At the strategic level, using dashboards, visualization, point-and-click analysis, modeling, simulation, and optimization, MPM offers role-based access to data and KPIs.

Marketing technology roadmap:
It is a tactical tool that gives marketing leaders the ability to: 

  • Inform marketing teams and the rest of the company about the capabilities offered by Martech
  • To aid in developing use cases, collect business and user requirements.
  • Prioritize requests for new technology or capability development
  • Organize the development and use of martech following short- and long-term business objectives.
  • Draw attention to and adjust for new technological trends, hazards, and other market disruptors.

Market scope: 
Vendors are evaluated using standards that emphasize the crucial features of a developing or established market. It would be challenging to evaluate all of the traditional criteria used in a Magic Quadrant because vendors and goods are less well recognized or tested in the market in emerging regions. Since vendors and products are frequently well-known in mature markets, there is less demand for relative comparison and more emphasis on differentiating qualities. MarketScopes will assist you in understanding the dynamics of these markets as well as the advantages of their suppliers, even when the market is not well suited for Magic Quadrant research.

Mass collaboration:
An idea, artifact, process, plan, action, etc., can develop or evolve quickly and successfully with the help of many individuals. Mass collaboration in the context of social software refers to engagement by individuals with whom you might not otherwise have had a prior relationship.

Matrix organizations:
These are set up such that different managers receive reports from the same staff. Functional groups and business lines are frequently the basis for reporting lines in matrix organizations.

Media mix:
An organization uses a variety of paid communication channels to spread its message and brand to potential customers. Social media, conventional print ads, TV ads, and direct email are frequently included in a media mix.

Media tablet: 
It is a gadget with a touchscreen display that often supports multitouch and allows users to enter material using an on-screen keyboard. The screen on the device has a diagonal measurement of at least five inches. Media tablets offer Wi-Fi or 3G/4G cellular network connectivity. Tablets often have batteries that last all day, have extensive standby intervals, and allow fast access from a suspended state. The Apple iPad, Samsung Galaxy Tab, Acer Iconia HCL ME X1, Micromax Funbook, and Milagrow TabTop are a few examples of media tablets.

Meeting solutions:
Meeting solutions are real-time collaboration tools and related devices that enable networked communications amongst attendees during teamwork, presentations, training sessions, and webinars. While some suppliers offer broad solutions that may be used for various uses, others segment their product lines to target and scale to one or more of those use cases. With integrated audio, video, messaging, and information sharing, enterprise products in this sector deliver excellent performance for users at their desks, in meeting rooms, or on the go.

Organizations with complicated demands frequently have meeting solutions for internal use that are distinct from those for external use in sales or marketing. These solutions are typically used for internal collaboration, learning, and communication. Due to such complicated requirements, running meeting solutions from many vendors may be necessary. Complete solutions for meetings

It is a two-terminal passive memory device where the resistance value stands for the stored logic state. The direction of the current flow determines the resistance, and the operation is nonvolatile. Memristors write data more quickly than flash memory and use less switching energy.

Mesh network: 
It uses wireless nodes to build a fictitious wireless backbone instead of centralized access points, which are absent. Mesh network nodes frequently form connections with adjacent nodes, allowing user traffic to travel around the network by hopping between nodes on numerous paths. For backhaul, some nodes must be linked to a core network. Mesh networks are moderately scalable, self-healing, and self-organizing. Extra capacity is provided by progressively adding nodes.

Message broker: 
It serves as a logical hub that duplicates and resends messages to single or several destinations. It can support a service-oriented architecture by acting as a value-adding intermediary between information providers and information consumers (SOA). Similar to an SOA, a broker is a design abstraction that can be implemented for some or all of the connections using component software. An object request broker (ORB) or object transaction monitor (OTM) may be used as the interface between a message broker and the application; a request to the message broker may be implemented as a series of method calls to participating components.

Message numbering: 
It is the process of designating each message in a communications system with a sequential number.

Message switching: 
It describes a method for receiving a message, keeping it on file until the appropriate outgoing line becomes available, and then sending it again. Unlike in-line switching, there isn’t a direct connection between the incoming and departing lines.

It is the knowledge that outlines numerous aspects of an information asset to enhance its usability throughout its existence. Information is transformed into an asset through metadata. In general, the importance of managing the metadata associated with an information asset increases with its value because the metadata definition gives insight into how to maximize the data value.

It is a language that speaks about other languages. Character sets, grammar, and acceptable sequences are examples of language constructs defined by a metalanguage.

It is a tightly focused market that combines content, value-added services, and product offerings from several vendors to help consumers in a specific sector, area, or affinity group make informed purchasing decisions.

It alludes to the tiny instructions, particularly those of a microprocessor, that control the specifics of how something works. While increasing efficiency, microcode functions also add another level of complexity. For instance, the software interprets microcode defects as hardware failures.

Small-scale, low-voltage power systems with distributed energy sources, storage, and regulated loads comprise these systems. They are run in a regulated, organized manner while being “islanded” from the primary power network. By increasing energy efficiency, lowering transmission and distribution losses, increasing reliability, lessening environmental impact, improving network operational benefits, and offering more cost-effective electricity infrastructure replacement, the operation of microgrids benefits both customers and utilities.

It is a microprocessing unit (MPU), or central processing unit (CPU), on a single chip (MPU). One microprocessor normally powers desktop and portable computers, although more powerful computers may employ numerous microprocessors.

Programs and databases, which may be located on various systems, function together thanks to software “glue.” Its primary purpose is to make software components communicate with one another.

Minimum Cell Rate (MCR): 
The minimum number of cells allowed in a given time is determined by this asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) setting.

Mobile advertising: 
It is sponsored insertion of advertising or other content on the screens of mobile devices, namely smartphones and media tablets. Mobile ad formats include placements based on search, the Web, apps, streams, and messages.

Mobile Application stores: 
These provide mobile customers with downloading software through a storefront built into the device or accessible online. Games, travel, productivity, entertainment, literature, utilities, education, travel, and search are among the application categories available in public app stores. These can be either free or paid for. Businesses can develop their private app shops for mobile workers.

Mobile High-Definition Link (MHL): 
It is a mobile audio/video interface standard for connecting high-definition TVs (HDTVs) and displays directly to cell phones and other portable consumer electronics devices. It is a five-pin, low-power interface that supports HDCP, Remote Control Protocol, and 8-channel digital audio in addition to 1080p60 resolution. It makes it possible to power the mobile device and connect to the display using the same cable. An active dongle or dock with a conversion chip can convert MHL to HDMI-compliant signals for connecting to a digital TV. Many of the common connections used in many mobile phones and portable consumer electronics goods are supported by MHL, which is connector-agnostic. It is less expensive and takes up less room to use existing connectors for compact forms.

Mobile Marketing: 
It is a platform that aids in managing and executing marketing campaigns that directly target consumers on mobile devices. Marketers may maximize their efforts because of mobile’s special capacity to deliver customers contextually relevant, timely, and location-specific marketing engagements. An essential component of this activity is native or third-party analytics to enable audience targeting, campaign sequencing, personalization, and performance measurement.

mobile payment: 
It is described as transactions made with a mobile phone and payment methods such as cash, a bank account, a debit card, and stored value accounts (SVAs) like a gift card, a transportation card, Paypal, or a mobile wallet.

Mobile portal: 
It is an Internet gateway that offers remote intranet or extranet access for mobile devices, often through a Web browser interface. Consumer-focused mobile portals give users access to mobile content and services via voice, SMS, i-mode, and microbrowsers like WAP. Consumer mobile portals compile information from various sources and may provide mobile users with personalized services and content, such as unified messaging, news, search tools, directories, and m-commerce transactions.

Mobile social-networking: 
Through one or more mobile channels, these services allow users to connect to their social communities using a mobile device. Members can contribute personal content, experiences, hobbies, and opinions through their mobile devices. Mobile gives social networking new features, including location-based services (like check-in) and new visualization techniques (e.g., augmented reality showing where friends are).

Mobile virtual network enabler (MVNE):
This business helps mobile virtual network operators (MVNOs) offer services to their clients by providing network infrastructure and related services, including provisioning, management, and OSS/BSS. Customers are not associated with MVNE.

Mobile Web applications: 
It speaks about mobile applications that merely need a Web browser installed. Although they may use augmented rich Internet application (RIA) technologies like Flash, JavaFX, and Silverlight but are not designed expressly for the device, they often use HTML and Ajax (and, increasingly, HTML5 components). When created expressly for smaller form factors, rich mobile Web applications have usability roughly comparable to rich Internet applications (RIAs) for PCs. Simple mobile Web apps are made to deliver information legibly action-oriented way while limiting the use of RIA technology. Mobile Web applications are different from mobile native applications in that they are not constrained by the underlying platform for deployment and instead use Web technology.

Mobile-network operator (MNO): 
A business that owns and manages one or more mobile networks is this one.

Model-Driven Architecture (MDA):
The OMG has registered it as a trademark. It outlines a method for separating technical implementation details from business-level functionality. The idea behind MDA and other model-driven methodologies is to make it possible to model business-level functionality using standards like the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and Business Process Modeling Notation, allowing the models to exist independently of platform constraints and requirements and then to instantiate the models into particular runtime implementations.

It describes applying the information to a carrier signal by changing one or more of the signal’s fundamental properties (frequency, amplitude, or phase); it also describes the transformation of a signal from its original (often digital) format to an analog format. Particular types include:

  • Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) • Pulse code modulation (PCM) • Pulse width modulation (PWN), also known as pulse duration modulation, or PDM; • Adaptive differential pulse code modulation (ADPCM)

Money cloud: 
A technical platform and protocol standards are being developed as a result of cooperative projects to make it possible for different, interoperable currencies to exist on the Internet. The objective is to establish an open-source technological environment that decentralizes the financial system and supports person-to-person (P2P) exchanges without the use of a centralized administration or proprietary technology.

Moves, adds, and changes (MAC): 
It is a catch-all phrase for routine maintenance on computer equipment in a business, such as upgrades, installs, and moving.

A department inside an integrated delivery system or hospital manages several clinics and doctor practices connected to it.

Multichannel feedback management: 
Its products include surveying and feedback analysis tools that can be used with all retailers’ brands and platforms, including social and mobile. They can be used for anything from one-time tactical surveys (such as customers responding to a quick questionnaire about their shopping experience that is printed on their point-of-sale receipt or texting feedback using a keyword or code that is displayed on store signage) to ongoing strategic feedback to better understand customers, employees, products, and processes.

Multicore processors: 
These are single-processor units that feature several processor cores. Each core has the necessary functional components to carry out instructions independently of the other cores.

Multifunction product (MFP):
It is a network-attached device for producing documents that combine two or more copy, print, scan, and fax capabilities.

Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS):
It adheres to the 3GPP mobile messaging standard and offers voice, sound, graphics, and photo communications. In contrast to EMS, MMS does not use established communications technologies (such as SMS). Instead, it necessitates the deployment of additional infrastructure by network operators, such as a multimedia messaging service center. It requires MMS capabilities in mobile handsets and sends messages through a wireless data carrier. The 3GPP (TS 23.140) and the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA), which also included the WAP Forum, collaboratively established the MMS standard. Many functionalities supported by MMS cannot be supplied using current mobile messaging standards.

Multiple input/multiple outputs (MIMO): 
It is a multi-antenna wireless technology that can boost throughput, system capacity, and spectrum efficiency, lessen fading, and improve interference resistance. It is ideal for base stations and mobile devices. It is currently utilized in 802.11n WLAN equipment that is not yet standard and will probably be incorporated into future WiMAX and cellular standards.

It is the division of a transmission facility into two or more channels, either through frequency division multiplexing, which uses smaller bands to create each channel or by allocating this same channel to several different information channels, one at a time (time division multiplexing).

It refers to a software operation mode in which numerous independent instances of one or more applications run concurrently in a common setting. Although physically interconnected, the instances (tenants) are logically separated. The level of physical integration will vary, but the logical isolation level must be complete. It is increasingly difficult to maintain logical isolation the more physical integration there is. Organizations with access to the multitenant application may be represented by the tenants (application instances) (this is the scenario of ISV offering an application service to multiple customer organizations). In a private or public cloud, where several applications are provided in the same environment, the tenants may also be multiple apps vying for the same underlying resources.

Mobile commerce (m-commerce): 
It speaks of the direct wireless transmission of e-commerce capabilities to mobile service consumers.

Magic Quadrants: 
It provides insight into a market’s direction, maturity, and participation through visual glimpses, in-depth studies, and practical guidance. Magic Quadrants evaluate vendors using the same standards and methodology as Gartner. Each study includes a Magic Quadrant image, which uses a two-dimensional matrix to represent a market and ranks suppliers according to their Completeness of Vision and Execution Capability.

It is a sensor that gauges the planet’s magnetic field to pinpoint the magnetic poles’ direction. Mobile devices must incorporate three-axis compasses, magnetometer sensors, and accelerometer sensors to allow tilt compensation when not held horizontally.

Managed file transfer (MFT): 
It is a technology that enables the efficient and dependable secure movement of data. Unlike conventional file transfer methods like FTP and scripting, MFT’s essential functions allow for the security of files both during transmission and when they are stored, as well as logging and auditing file activity. MFT’s specific emphasis on controlling the transfer of enormous file sizes and volumes sets it apart from other infrastructure and integration technologies.

Managed print services (MPS): 
These are services that an outside vendor provides to manage or optimize a company’s document output. Needs assessment, partial or complete hardware replacement, and the support, parts, and supplies required to run new and current hardware are the key elements offered (including existing third-party equipment if the customer needs this). The provider monitors the printer, fax, copier, and MFP fleet usage, issues, and user satisfaction.

Management by objectives: 
It is a performance management strategy that is based on results. The organization’s strategic goals are established by upper-level management, who then communicate these goals to the next tier of control so that they can specify the objectives that must be met for the organization to accomplish its more general purposes. Every employee sets goals that align with the organization’s strategic objectives as a result of the strategic goals cascading down through the entire organization.

It is a manufacturer of completed goods with or without brands. Contract manufacturers, OEMs, or both can be manufacturers.

Manufacturing scheduling:
It involves the creation of execution schedules at the plant level for each product and resource (such as a line or machine) and eliminating daily capacity constraints. Applications for scheduling resources typically provide capabilities like sequence-dependent setup, tank scheduling, and point-of-use material availability. They also usually include a more detailed degree of resource information.

Market capitalization:
It is the sum market value in dollars of a corporation’s outstanding stock shares. It is determined by dividing the total number of claims by the stock price as of the calculation date.

Marketing automation: 
It is software that helps marketers manage campaigns and assist with consumer segmentation and customer data management. Increased efficiency and productivity give marketers the potential to offer real-time, tailored, data-driven campaigns.

Marketing benchmarking: 
It is the evaluation of how well a business, brand, or product is doing compared to its rivals or to industry standards. Marketers can compare data to those of their rivals to pinpoint areas where they excel and where specific areas require improvement, particularly in the following areas:

  • Brand loyalty, understanding, and maturity
  • client acquisition
  • campaign effectiveness
  • Digital channel effectiveness
  • % of the market

Marketing communications (also known as Marcom):
Marketing communicates with target markets through messages and media. Traditional advertising, direct marketing, social marketing, presentations, and sponsorships are a few examples of marketing communications.

Marketing encyclopedia system (MES): 
It is a system that electronically disseminates and compiles current marketing data into a single-source repository with several cross-references. An MES can reduce sales cycles and printing and distribution expenses by enabling users to discover and display information rapidly. An MES includes a database that can store all the information that will be used by the system (e.g., audio, video, sound, text, and graphics). The design should operate without a server connection and have a remote communications system for electronically downloading and uploading data.

Marketing mix: 
It describes the actions under a corporation’s control to attract customers to its brand, usually intending to make a purchase. Price, promotion, product, and place have been referred to as the “4 P’s” of the marketing mix in traditional literature (distribution).

Marketing mix optimization:
Selecting the most effective collection of advertising and targeted campaigns across various channels (offline and online) and media lets marketers maximize returns on their marketing expenditures (traditional, digital and social).

Marketing planning: 
This strategy involves identifying corporate objectives and implementing programs to achieve those objectives to plan direct marketing campaigns clearly and decisively.

Marketing strategy:
It is a strategy created to accomplish a specific marketing objective, usually to connect with a target consumer group and turn them into customers.

Marketing vision: 
It is a concise declaration of intention, goals, and purposes that directs and informs the creation of marketing plans and strategies and sets the company apart from its rivals. It must be based on broadly accepted corporate strategy and provide an ambitious, future-focused viewpoint.

It assembles existing software and data services into new Web-based solutions.

Massive open online course (MOOC): 
It is an online phenomenon made feasible by:

  1. Social networking.
  2. Freely available online resources.
  3. Hundreds to thousands of enrolled students.
  4. Recognized experts in a subject of study.

Anyone with a network connection can enroll in MOOCs for no cost (free). Accreditation is not desired or required for MOOCs. In a MOOC, students self-organize their participation. But even “lurkers” among the students are welcome.

Materials management: 
It is a phrase used to group management responsibilities for the entire material flow cycle, from the acquisition and internal management of raw materials for production to the scheduling and administration of work in progress to the storage, shipping, and distribution of the finished product. The latter phrase, materials control, traditionally refers only to the internal management of manufacturing materials, which is where it differentiates from the former.

Media Access Control: 
It is an IEEE standard that defines how to access a LAN’s physical layer. (i.e., Layer 1 of the OSI model).

Media objects: 
These files or programs are not written in HTML but can be viewed or used as a component of an HTML document. Graphic, audio, and video files, as well as Java applets, are some examples.

Media-embedded merchandising (MEM): 
It is a type of product placement that enables commercial content to be embedded into and automatically recognized and labeled within a rich-media element (such as a branded prop, product photo, or custom segment) (usually a linear video program, but games and virtual worlds are also possible). This is done so that viewers can refer to the item by pointing to it or discovering and referencing it later in a program component that involves shopping.

It is a portal that aims to provide for the needs of the entire online community (in contrast to a vertical Internet portal, which targets a niche audience).

Message authentication: 
It is a feature that checks to see if the received message originated from the specified source and was received in its original form. The authentication code must be encrypted, but not the message itself.

Message feedback: 
It is a technique for ensuring that data transfer accuracy. To compare the received data with the original data, which is kept for this purpose, it is sent back to the sending end—also known as loop checking and information feedback.

Message passing: 
It describes programs that perform a straightforward, one-way transfer operation through services. Message passing typically allows the sending program to run unhindered, just like the other one-way communications paradigms. Message passing is often connectionless, as with all forms of messaging, which implies that the program sending the message does not have to consciously create and maintain a connection with the message’s intended recipient. Although two-way communication cannot be achieved by message passing by itself, it can be done by sending the response in a separate message.

Message warehouse: 
It is a message broker service that holds messages in the interim to be reviewed or resent later.

Metadata and data modeling tools: 
This encourages developing and documenting models outlining the linkages, structures, flows, mappings, and transformations of data and its quality. With the help of these tools, users can find and develop data models, establish connections between models, and map and reconcile logical and physical models.

It refers to incorporating metrics or measurement tools into applications to monitor what is happening in the network or local environment in which the program is running.

Customers who follow or subscribe to a specific Twitter feed receive brief messages. Twitter is the most widely used microblogging site, but Plurk, Tumblr,, and Weibo are all well-liked in other parts of the world. Unlike enterprise-centric microblogging sites (like Yammer and Socialcast), which concentrate on cooperation in the enterprise, these platforms are consumer-focused yet can be utilized by retailers.

It is a high-resolution film used to record images that have decreased in size from the original.

In contrast to conventional, centralized inverters, which are larger and made to handle the output of many PV panels, these little power inverters are made to be positioned on individual photovoltaic (PV) solar panels. The inverter’s main job is to transform the DC output of the PV panel into AC electricity, which can connect to a building’s electrical system and enable connections with the utility grid.

Minimum Viable Product (MVP): 
Before creating a product with more features, the launch of a new product (or a significant new part) is used to validate client needs and desires. An MVP only has the essential features needed to be a workable client solution to shorten development time and effort.

Mobile and wireless infrastructure software platforms: 
It refers to creating brand-new customer mobile apps and the “mobilization” of already-existing traditional enterprise applications, email systems, and enterprise data warehouses.

Mobile browser: 
It is a client-side application that resides on a mobile device and is on-device. It offers accessibility to information and software from the Internet and, increasingly, the cloud. There are numerous similarities between desktop and mobile browsers. Still, there are also many differences, such as screen size, device power (processing and memory footprint), network speed, and device resources. As HTML5 and WebKit-compatible browsers make their way onto mobile devices, this perception of mobile browsers as less functional than desktop browsers is expected to change.

Mobile deep packet inspection (DPI): 
It is a method for keeping track of data traffic in mobile apps. Mobile DPI can be a standalone network element or a component of existing network elements. As a business model changes and data services start to outperform voice in revenue generation—and as the network is upgraded to Long Term Evolution (LTE) and becomes Internet Protocol (IP) end-to-end—the ability to perform traffic shaping and possibly blocking becomes crucial.

Mobile digital rights management (mobile DRM): 
It refers to technology that makes it possible to distribute, advertise, and sell digital content for mobile devices in a secure manner. According to the OMA, mobile DRM allows content suppliers to establish product usage rights, enabling restricted digital content consumption. Among other things, usage rights provide you the power to allow previews of content and to stop unauthorized duplication and distribution.

Mobile instant messaging (mobile IM): 
It refers to the use of a mobile device and a wireless network to access an online IM program, including presence and friend lists.

Mobile middleware: 
It is middleware made to handle specific difficulties experienced by mobile apps using wireless connections that may be sluggish, unreliable, or have high latency. Mobile middleware carries out data synchronization, protocol improvement, and compression.

Mobile PCs: 
Although they meet all PC requirements, they are made to be portable. The system consists of a keyboard, a display, mass storage, and the central system unit, which is entirely self-contained and mobile as a single unit. Direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC) are its power sources (DC). Tablet computers also fall under the category of mobile PCs; these devices are defined by a pen-based OS that substitutes a pen for a keyboard as the primary input method. Desktop replacement, mainstream, mini-notebook, ultraportable, tablet, or other mobile configurations are all examples of portable PCs.

Mobile Satellite Service (MSS): 
It is a network of communication satellites designed to be used in conjunction with mobile and portable wireless telephones. Aeronautical, terrestrial, and maritime MSS are the three primary kinds.

Mobile Transformers:
These are mobile device products with novel and adaptive form factors that users can dynamically change depending on the situation and need. Some products, like the Nokia Morph, are still in the conceptual model stage, while others are already on the market. Modu’s Modu Mobile assembles and creates the most suitable form factor for a user at a specific time using a modular, Lego-like technique built on building blocks. Instead, Nokia’s Morph uses cutting-edge materials (based on nanotechnologies) to offer flexible, foldable, and stretchable designs, allowing users to alter the shape of their mobile devices drastically.

Mobile Virtual Network Operator (MVNO): 
It is a business that uses a mobile operator’s network with a license to sell mobile services under its brand name while not having its mobile spectrum license. Several agreements with a mobile network operator fall under this umbrella phrase. On one end are businesses that provide mobile services under a specific brand, with their pricing and marketing strategies, typically via a well-developed CRM system. On the other end are organizations that, in addition to producing their goods, control the HLR and MSC, issue their own SIM cards, and have their core network infrastructures.

Mobile widgets: 
These are tiny, frequently straightforward apps created with web-based technologies including JavaScript, XML, HTML, and style sheets. A widget engine, which may be offered by the mobile browser or as a standalone tool, executes locally stored widgets on a device. Smartphones provide the majority of widget technologies. However, some are also available on less advanced, improved phones. Widgets can be downloaded from application stores and other mobile content providers because they are mobile applications.

Mobile/Wireless portal:  
It is a website containing a variety of services, links, and content created specifically for mobile devices. It serves as a value-added middleman by choosing the material sources and compiling them into an easy-to-navigate (and customized) interface for presentation to the end-mobile user’s device.

Model-driven packaged applications:
Enterprise applications that produce runtime components through dynamically interpreted or compiled metadata models, as opposed to hardcoded code, are referred to as having explicit metadata-driven models of the supported processes, data, and relationships. The primary distinction is that models allow for changes made by business analysts or other key users without involving programmers, eliminating the “lost in translation” issues that frequently arise between business needs and technical execution.

Molecular transistors: 
This phrase describes switching circuits made from a single molecule. The bulk lithography methods used in semiconductor devices today are “top down,” however it is possible to create individual devices “bottom-up” utilizing chemical processes. This will result in far smaller structures than what is now conceivable with lithographic techniques. In these tiny devices, the presence or absence of a single electron can signify the on or off states.

Mood recognition: 
These technologies use biometric sensors, cameras, and user interactions to detect a user’s emotional state and then take specific, predefined actions in response, such as changing the lighting in a car to more subdued colors to reduce a user’s high-stress level or playing dynamic music to reduce driver fatigue. To decrease potential accidents and enhance the driving experience, driver education is one of the additional applications and market segments that the technology can be applied to.

Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG): 
It is a digital video compression standard for images in full motion. The MPEG encoding compression ratios make it ideal for sending digital video data. MPEG-1 deals with stereo and mono sound coding at standard high-quality audio sampling rates. MPEG-2 has an extension for multichannel sound and a lower sampling frequency extension that improves sound quality at low data rates. Improvements to MPEG-3 and MPEG-4 are currently being developed. There are three layers in MPEG-1 and MPEG-2, respectively. Every layer is a collection of coding algorithms. Layer 3 deals with sound encoding and is insufficient to encode audio files. It is referred to as MP3 in this form.

Multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA): 
The ITU’s 3GPP2 standards organization created it as the foundational standard for the cdma2000 family.

Multichannel loyalty:
With these solutions, retailers may transact with, engage with, and reward customers across all channels by using the loyalty functions from a single, centralized management system. The minimal requirement is to give loyalty capabilities to contact centers, e-commerce, and point of sale (POS) systems. Social and mobile capabilities are becoming more and more significant.

Multidimensional Database Management System (MDDBMS): 
A database management system stores and maintains data in dimensional arrays indexed by dimensions and time recorded.

Multimodal Transportation Management Systems (TMSs): 
Domestic shipper-centric TMSs manage domestic freight operations in a particular area or geography. These are employed to organize movements, carry out rating and shipment across all modes (truckload, less than truckload [LTL], air, package, rail, and intermodal), integrate orders, choose the best route and carrier, interact (tender) with pages, and handle freight bills and payments.

Multiple instructions, multiple data (MIMD): 
A similar computer design allows for the concurrent execution of numerous separate instruction streams (programs), each of which deals with different data types.

It relates to or alludes to a communications line that has at least three stations connected to it. It suggests that the railway stretches from one station to the next until every station is connected.

It is the simultaneous processing of several messages (or similar service requests) by application software.

Machine learning:
Deep learning, neural networks, and natural language processing are just a few technologies that make up advanced machine learning algorithms employed in both supervised and unsupervised learning and are operated by lessons from current data.

Magnetic-ink character recognition (MICR): 
It is the computerized reading and digitalization of magnetic characters found on paper (typically bank drafts and deposit slips).

Managed network services (MNCs):  
It describes a vendor’s provision of primarily operational support for a new environment where the customer’s physical assets, financial commitments, and staff are still recorded.

Managed Security Service Provider (MSSP): 
It offers outsourced supervision and control over security equipment and systems. Managed firewalls, intrusion detection, virtual private network, vulnerability screening, and anti-viral services are standard services. To reduce the number of operational security personnel an enterprise needs to hire, train, and retain to maintain an acceptable security posture, MSSPs use high-availability security operation centers (either from their facilities or other data center providers). These centers can be located at other data center providers or in their facilities.

Management consulting:  
It is strategic advising that is concentrated on high-level corporate or business unit strategy, operational improvement, or both (for example, choosing which companies to participate in or whether to make an acquisition) (e.g., improving customer service or determining the most effective type of retail delivery system).

Manufacturing execution systems (MESs):
This control supervises and synchronizes the physical processes that turn raw materials into intermediate and completed commodities in real time. They collaborate with enterprise-level systems and production scheduling to organize this work order execution. Additionally, MES software offers feedback on the efficiency of processes and, if necessary, supports component- and material-level traceability, ancestry, and connection with process history.

Initially used for academic purposes related to parallel programming techniques, it is a programming model or methodology for processing data using a parallel programming implementation.

Market share:
It refers to the share of the addressable market that employs a vendor’s product or service.

Marketing Channel:
People, groups, and activities make products and services accessible to customers. From the moment of production to the point of consumption, ownership of the commodities is transferred. Some examples are trade exhibits, industry gatherings, targeted emails, cold phoning, display advertising, and direct sales.

Marketing content management (MCM):
It is a class of software that enables businesses to swiftly adapt to changing business conditions by deploying the excellent coordination of marketing content across various channels. Enterprises may obtain a comprehensive list of all available marketing content thanks to MCM databases.

Marketing intelligence: 
An organization employs this group of marketing dashboard tools to collect and examine data to identify market opportunities, a market penetration plan, and market development indicators.

Marketing Mix Optimization: 
Selecting the most practical combination of advertising and targeted campaigns across various channels lets marketers maximize returns on their marketing investments. One sort of marketing mix optimization is media mix optimization, which supports media planning and buying and maximizes return on investment for all media and advertising campaigns. To enhance income potential, production portfolio optimization maximizes the variety of items being marketed.

Marketing resource management:
This software enables strategic planning, budgeting, program management, content management, media planning and execution, event coordination, resource measurement, and creative development and dissemination.

Marketing technology (also known as martech):
It is a collection of software tools marketing executives use to promote innovation within their companies and support mission-critical business goals. Advertising, direct marketing, marketing administration, and marketing data and analytics are the main focuses of martech solutions.

Marketing-Qualified Lead (MQL): 
It is a potential customer examined by the marketing team and meets the requirements for being forwarded to the sales team.

Master Content Management (MCM):
It is used in two different contexts: 1) MCM is the workflow process that brings together business and IT to ensure the consistency, accuracy, stewardship, and accountability of the enterprise’s official, shared information assets. In this case, these assets are content assets, such as employee, supplier, and customer contracts, new customer intake forms, and other content types that must be managed as enterprise information. 2) MCM is a standardized, accepted set of identifiers, attributes, and taxonomies to describe unstructured data. As a result, it may be integrated with any content management system and connected to an MDM program.

Media Gateway: 
Such as TDM circuit-switched networks, ATM, or IP, a network infrastructure component that converts one or more input protocols or media to one or more output media or protocols. It is a translator across various telecom networks, including PBXs, NGNs, 2G, 2.5G, 3G RANs, PSTNs, and 2G and 2.5G RANs. Voice over ATM and VoIP are both supported by media gateways (VoATM). To ensure that voice traffic is given priority and that users receive “toll grade” voice service, they monitor the quality of service.

Medical management:
It is a general phrase that covers the application of IT for case management, care, and health-related purposes. Medical management techniques aim to alter patient and provider behavior to raise the standard and effectiveness of healthcare delivery.

Memory Overcommit: 
When the total memory defined for the VMs is greater than the available physical memory, it can operate numerous virtual machines (VMs).

Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A):
In these transactions, the ownership of businesses or their operational divisions, along with all related assets and liabilities, is transferred to a different organization. An acquisition happens when one firm buys the ownership of another, whereas a merger involves the combination of two entities into one. M&A allows businesses to expand or contract and change their competitive position.

Message format:
They are rules for arranging message components such as the heading, address, content, end-of-message indicator, and error-detecting bits.

In essence, it is the message-passing model with a different feature. Like a typical postal system, message queuing is asynchronous in that the recipient need not be present when the message is transmitted. Message queuing saves messages at an intermediate network node in a queue before forwarding them to their intended recipients.

It describes a one-way or two-way service that sends, receives, and displays messages on mobile devices in alphanumeric or graphic form.

Messaging Hypertext Markup Language (MHTML): 
It is a language that may include externally linked picture files within an HTML page, thereby significantly expanding its size.

It serves as a superset of all other directories and is a directory. Instead of being standalone products, meta directories allow a specific manual to synchronize and exchange data with other data repositories.

It is a lightweight Web browser that supports XHTML/Basic and other compressed versions of HTML, making it appropriate for low-powered mobile devices.

Small-scale, low-voltage power systems with distributed energy sources, storage, and regulated loads comprise these systems. They are run in a regulated, organized manner while being “islanded” from the primary power network. By increasing energy efficiency, lowering transmission and distribution losses, increasing reliability, lessening environmental impact, improving network operational benefits, and offering more cost-effective electricity infrastructure replacement, the operation of microgrids benefits both customers and utilities.

It is a style of management characterized by a lack of task or decision distribution to staff and an overabundance of supervision and control of employees’ work and procedures.

Microsoft Certified Professional (MCP): 
It is a Microsoft certification that must be earned by passing prerequisite tests. As Microsoft moves toward role-based certification programs, a single exam will no longer be required to achieve the MCP certification as of February 2019. These positions (or areas of technology specialization) include functional consultant, administrator, solution architect, and developer. Each role has a different set of prerequisites for obtaining the MCP certification.

Million instructions per second (MIPS): 
It is a rough indicator of the unprocessed processing power of a computer. Because measurement methods frequently vary and computers may need different sets of instructions to complete the same task, MIPS statistics can be deceiving.

Minutes of use (MOUs): 
A wireless user’s entire circuit-switched voice connection time is measured (often monthly).

Mobile centrex: 
It is a network-based solution that offers conventional PBX-style calling capabilities using wireless mobile phones. There are numerous ways to deliver mobile centrex, including mobile virtual private networks, private base stations with cellular single-mode handsets, and IP PBX with cellular or Wi-Fi dual-mode handsets (VPNs).

Mobile earth station: 
It describes a radio transmitter or receiver used for satellite communications that are mounted on a ship, airplane, or vehicle.

Mobile IP: 
It is a method of packet-forwarding that enables remote users to connect to their networks through the Internet. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is compatible with it (DHCP).

Mobile networks: 
These are mobile subscriber centers (MSCs), antenna cell sites, and radio base stations.

Mobile PC ODMs: 
These are contract manufacturers of mobile PCs who work with mobile PC OEM suppliers to produce mobile PCs.

Mobile voice over Internet Protocol (mVoIP):
Mobile voice over Internet Protocol (mVoIP), which can be provided by a communications service provider (CSP) or a third-party provider, offers packet-switched voice communications over a radio access network (such as Skype).

Mobile Wireless Local Loop (WLL): 
It is an access solution implemented via mobile devices, cellular infrastructure, or low mobility. cdmaOne (IS-95A and B), cdma2000 1x RTT, Personal HandyPhone System (PHS), and personal access communication services are the leading technologies included here (PACS). Even though the networks may technically be able to handle such services, mobile WLLs are not operated as complete mobility cellular services for economic or regulatory reasons. The PHS standard-based mobile WLL devices in UTStarcom’s portfolio are Personal Access Systems (PAS).

Mobility managed services (MMS): 
It includes all of the IT and process management services needed for a business to buy, set up, and maintain mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets with built-in cellular and wireless connectivity. Even though the current market for these services is mainly centered on corporate-liable devices, MMS engagements also give businesses some control over supporting individual liable devices or bringing your device accessing corporate resources and information.

models (or AI model operationalization):
The main emphasis of this research is the governance and life cycle management of a wide range of operationalized artificial intelligence (AI) and decision models, including machine learning, knowledge graphs, rules, optimization, language, and agent-based models. Core capabilities include champion-challenger testing, model versioning, model store, rollback, and continuous integration/continuous delivery (CI/CD) integration.

Motion JPEG (M-JPEG):
It is a variation of the JPEG format designed to compress motion video rather than still images. Redundancy across frames is disregarded, which results in less compression than the Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG). The benefits include ease of use and quick access to particular photographs.

MPEG-4 Advanced Video Coding (AVC):
The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) established this as the norm for compressing audio and video data for: 

  • OTT (over-the-top) streaming video
  • TV via Internet Protocol (IPTV)
  • digital broadcast television
  • Standard definition/HD linear broadcast on cable and satellite
  • the CD/DVD market
  • Videoconferencing

Multichannel campaign management:
It enables businesses to plan, coordinate, and distribute client offers via websites, mobile applications, social media, direct mail, call centers, and email. Addressable branding and advertising, contextual marketing, and transactional marketing are all parts of digital marketing, which is still integrated with campaign management. Through platforms including the web, video, mobile, and social applications, point-of-sale terminals, digital signs, and kiosks, digital marketing expands the marketing process.

This help to centralize a portfolio of multi-experience apps’ life cycle activities, including designing, building, testing, distributing, managing, and analyzing. Multi-experience is the term used to describe the many combinations of modalities (such as touch, voice, and gesture), devices, and apps that consumers interact with when traveling around the digital landscape at various touchpoints. To ensure a consistent user experience across web, mobile, wearable, conversational, and immersive touchpoints, multi-experience development entails developing fit-for-purpose apps based on touchpoint-specific modalities.

Multimedia Markup Language (MML):
Like DoCoMo’s exclusive cHTML browser, it is a microbrowser created for the J-Phone (now Vodafone KK) mobile data service.

Multimode fiber:
It is a fiber that allows different modes to propagate. The core diameter of the wire is 50–100 microns. Contrary to single-mode (mono-mode) fiber, it offers less bandwidth and more distortion.

Multiple regression:
It is a technique for estimating a variable’s value from the values of other variables.

Multipurpose Internet Messaging Extensions (MIME):
It makes it possible to send non-ASCII text and attachments using the Simple Message Transport Protocol (SMTP). The MIME-X.400 Enhanced Relay (MIXER) specification serves as their interface with X.400, covering most (but not all) of its functionality.

It describes a touchscreen interaction method where many simultaneous touchpoints and movements can be recognized and used to control items (such as sorting a collection of images on the screen) or navigate the screen. There are numerous ways to combine two or more fingers to make control movements. For instance, users can zoom in on a photo by spreading their thumb and index finger on a touchscreen. To zoom out, the same two fingers would be brought back together in a pinching action.

Unlike virtual machines, metal-as-a-service allows for the dynamic deployment and provisioning of entire physical servers.

Media Access Control; a connected device’s hardware address on a shared network.

The IBM PC was replaced by the personal computer in the middle of the 1980s. The graphical user interface and the 3 1/2 inch diskette drive gained popularity thanks to Macintoshes.

Mail Server:
A networked computer with the sole purpose of supporting email. To compose and send messages and retrieve new mail from the server, you utilize a client program like Microsoft Outlook.

Mailing list:
Mailing lists, a group of email addresses linked to a single name, offer a quick way to communicate with several people who share the same interest or connection. There are primarily two kinds of lists: 2) a Listserve kind that requires participants to be subscribed, one that you build within an email application like Outlook and has addresses for two or more people you routinely send the same message to (e.g., a group of collaborators, a class of students, or often just individuals interested in discussing a particular topic).

Main memory:
The quantity of Random Access Memory that is there in your machine. Additionally known as “RAM.”

A huge computer that can accommodate hundreds of users at once and run many different programs. It can also depend on how the product is promoted. Small mainframes and minicomputers are usually challenging to differentiate from one another.

Male connector:
A cable connector with pins that connect one device to another by plugging into a port or interface.

Software programs known as malware, such as viruses, worms, trojan horses, and spyware, are intended to harm computers or carry out other undesirable tasks.

Managed Workstations:
Through a successful combination of Help Desk and on-site assistance, centralized deployment of software patches and virus protection updates, and increased productivity and data security, a Managed Workstation decreases downtime, improves maintenance, and promotes productivity and data security. ITAdOn can provide knowledgeable workstation assistance from any location for all of your users. Our highly skilled, trained technical personnel can remotely view what is happening on a user’s computer screen using our DesktopStreamingTM live online assistance technology, which enables us to isolate problems and start fixing them swiftly.

A technology included in Microsoft Windows called Messaging Application Programming Interface allows various email clients to communicate with one another and distribute email. Both apps can share messages when MAPI is enabled.

Mobile device management is known as any procedure or instrument designed to distribute software, data, and configuration settings to mobile communication devices. MDM aims to enhance a mobile communications network’s usability and security. A comprehensive BYOD strategy must include MDM.

Megabyte (Meg or MB):
It suffices to think of a megabyte as one million bytes, or 1,024 × 1,024 (2 to the 20th power).

MHz or mHz:
Microprocessor speed is measured in megahertz (MHz); one MHz equals one million cycles per second. How many instructions a microprocessor can process per second depends on speed. The computer runs more quickly the greater the megahertz.

A bar with a list of titles that displays at the top of a window in a graphical user interface. You can choose any current command once a menu’s contents have been shown by clicking on the menu’s title (e.g., one that appears in bold and not in a lighter, gray type).

Microsoft Exchange:
The server-side of a client-server, collaborative application solution created by Microsoft is Exchange Server. It is utilized by businesses that employ Microsoft infrastructure products and is a part of the Microsoft Servers’ range of server solutions. Exchange’s main features include data storage support, mobile and web-based access to information, email, calendaring, contacts, and tasks. ITAdOn offers a fully hosted Exchange solution with redundant and clustered Microsoft Exchange servers with more than enough processing power to handle your company’s messaging requirements. Additionally, we manage all aspects of setup and configuration for you.

Microsoft Windows:
Windows is a series of PC or comparable computer operating systems that offer a graphical user interface that allows you to point and click to indicate your goals.

Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions is a standard that lets you attach many items to an email message, including text, audio, video, photos, and more.

A tool that makes it possible for a computer to communicate via a regular phone line. Modems come with various characteristics, including error correction and data compression, and can either be external (a separate device) or internal (a board inside the computer’s chassis).

A person who monitors and has the power to remove messages from an online community or newsgroup that is controlled or “moderated.”

The area of a computer that houses the monitor used to display messages going to and coming from the central processor unit (CPU). There are many different sizes and resolutions of monitors. The resolution of a screen improves with the number of pixels it can display. Occasionally referred to as a CRT.

A portable gadget that works with a graphical user interface. Everyday mouse actions include:

  1. Clicking the mouse button to select an object or to move the cursor to a specific location within a document.
  2. Double-clicking the mouse button to launch a program or open a folder.
  3. Dragging (holding down the mouse button while moving) to highlight a menu option or a chosen section of text.

Motion Picture Experts Group is a well-known high-definition video format for online files. To read MPEG files, a specialized assistance program is typically required.

Managed Remote Back-Up is a service that offers users a platform for cloud computing-based data backup, storage, and recovery.

A business model for offering information technology services is the managed service provider. Please click here to learn more.

The transmission of information in various formats, typically to a personal computer, including text, images, animation, audio, and video.

The capacity of a CPU to carry out multiple tasks at once. Windows and Macintosh computers multitask in that each running program uses the CPU just for the necessary time before switching to the next job.


N-channel metal-oxide semiconductor (NMOS): 
It is a microelectronic circuit in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) architecture, logic, and memory chips. More NMOS transistors can be fitted onto a single chip than their P-channel metal-oxide semiconductor (PMOS) sibling, which is faster.

t is a digital printing method created by Landa Digital Printing that uses offset, inkjet, and nanotechnologies in conjunction to print on almost any type of paper or film. The name comes from Landa’s pigment particles, measured in the tens of nanometers and used as colorants (inks).

The location where an Internet service provider (ISP) drops its lines and sets up a peering arrangement to offer consumers Internet connectivity.

Native advertising:
It is paid advertising that aims to blend in with the surrounding editorial environment by using similar stylistic and topic components. Advertorials and sponsored content are examples of paid content marketing formats that are included. A news or social feed can also take the shape of a display or video adverts in conventional designs.

Network Computer:
A network computer, sometimes known as a “thin client,” is a desktop computer with fewer features intended to connect to networks quickly. A keyboard, mouse, display, RAM, and network connection are all included in NCs, but there is little to no local disk storage. End users would use a graphical user interface (GUI), much like now with a PC, to access software or databases when utilizing an NC. Instead of being installed on the desktop PC, the software would be downloaded from a central server, and massive databases would also be kept on the main server. Therefore, the network server would act as the central location for all software backups, upgrades, and maintenance.

Networked data center:
A service that goes above and beyond simply making data center features accessible through a network. An NCC uses networking technology to efficiently access and process applications to treat several data centers and the network as a unified system.

Net Promoter Score (NPS):
The question, “How likely are you to refer [the company or product] to a friend or colleague?” is used to gauge a customer’s willingness to recommend a firm’s goods or services to friends or coworkers.


Network database:
A database is organized according to ownership of records, allowing records to have multiple owners and thus providing multiple access paths to the data. Database management systems (DBMSs) provide such capabilities as CODASYL (Conference on Data Systems Languages) DBMSs.


Network interface card (NIC):
The device that attaches a server or end station to a local area network is known as a bus-specific adapter (LAN). It has a connector for the network cabling and plugs into an expansion slot on a workstation or server that will be networked.

Network management center: 
It has network control. Some of the services it might offer are traffic analysis, call detail recording, configuration control, fault detection, diagnosis, and maintenance.

Network outsourcing:
It is a long-term or annuity contract or connection, including the acquisition of ongoing network or telecom management services for managing, improving, maintaining, and supporting buildings, core network infrastructure, or business telecommunications assets (including fixed and wireless). Network outsourcing separates the services provided explicitly under a longer-term contract in support of network infrastructures, in addition to network or telecommunications management: consulting/advisory services, network AD and integration, network infrastructure deployment, and support services.

Enterprise network outsourcing and public network outsourcing are the two categories into which Gartner divides network outsourcing. Enterprise network outsourcing excludes discrete professional services that are project-based or staff augmentation services. Additionally, services relating to the actual cable plant or other services linked to facilities are not included in enterprise network outsourcing (such as power conditioning). In terms of outsourcing public networks, we cover carrier network, commercial, and operational support services. Internal ITO and services connected to public network infrastructure and logistics planning are not considered (for example, DC power, land acquisition, and tower placement). The term “public network outsourcing” does not apply to discrete, project-based professional services or staff augmentation services, also known as “engineer-furnish-install.”

It is a communications path with supplementary links to join all nodes if one connection fails.

Network virtual terminal:
A diversity of data terminal equipment (DTE) with varying data speeds, protocols, codes, and formats is accommodated in the same network according to this communications approach. This is accomplished by network processing, in which the data from each device is first translated into a network standard format and then, at the destination end, into the structure of the receiving device.

It is the capacity to use insights from neuroscience to enhance the results of customers and other corporate decision-making situations.

The Next-Generation Telematics Protocol (NGTP):
It is a technologically agnostic telematics approach that seeks to give the automotive, telematics, and in-vehicle technology industries greater flexibility and scalability to deliver better connectivity and integration of data and services aimed at drivers, passengers, and the vehicle itself (e.g., airbag deployment notification services). BMW created the telematics framework in collaboration with the telematics service providers (TSPs) Connexis and WirelessCar, but other businesses have since adopted it.

It is an adaptation of the NMT-900 standard in French.

Nomadic wireless: 
The WiMAX Forum refers to semi-mobile wireless using this phrase. When employed by vendors, the terms “nomadic,” “portable,” and “mobile” frequently have different meanings.

Nonvolatile memory express (NVMe) and nonvolatile memory express over fabrics (NVMe-oF):
These host controller and network protocols benefit from solid-state storage’s low-latency and parallel-access capabilities and the PCIe bus. Access to nonvolatile memory (NVM) remote storage subsystems is expanded over a network via NVMe-oF. InfiniBand, RoCEv2, iWARP, RDMA over Fibre Channel, TCP, and other high-performance fabric technologies are all compatible with the specification’s definition of a standard protocol interface.

The Japanese expression sometimes refers to synchronized single-piece flow, which can resemble an assembly line even if there isn’t always a physical connection between the components.

Nanomaterial supercapacitors: 
These use nanoparticles significantly expand the surface area and energy storage capacity.

Natural-language processing (NLP):
With the aid of this technology, text or audio voice can be converted into encoded, organized information using the relevant ontology. This report summarizes a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, for example. The managed data may also identify findings, procedures, drugs, allergies, and participants.

NCCJ (Native Code Compiler for Java):
The executable program is created by translating bytecode into a file format and binary-code representation that can be linked (using a static linker) with precompiled libraries and resources. An NCCJ offers the chance to streamline the program code’s structure to eliminate unnecessary code and fine-tune code sequences (e.g., loops, jumps, and substitutions).

NDF(Network Dynamic Functionality):
A method for creating and running software that enables the creation of programs according to a model with platform independence built in from the start. It allows runtime dynamic movement and invocation of network-based code resources.

Net present value (NPV):
A method for creating and running software that enables the creation of programs according to a model with platform independence built in from the start. It allows runtime dynamic movement and invocation of network-based code resources.

Net-liberated organization (NLO): 
It refers to an organizational philosophy made possible by developing the Internet and related Web technologies. An NLO uses these technologies to free itself from the limitations of conventional business environments that prioritize local and physical infrastructures, as opposed to “bolting on” Web initiatives to mainstream operations (i.e., integrating the Internet into business processes while maintaining the structure of these processes).

An NLO seeks to change the enterprise into one more responsive to client requests and agile.

Network access control (NAC):
This method adds policies to the network to limit access by individuals and devices. The status of endpoint configuration and device and user authentication may be used to determine policies.

Network computing:
A client/server application architecture with dynamic administration, execution, and deployment of applications. Dynamic cached propagation, write once, run everywhere, automatic platform modification and network context storage are the four characteristics of network computing.

Network fault monitoring tools: 
This shows the status of switches and routers on the network, such as up or down. The topology map of the physical dependencies and relationships among network components is often additionally discovered and visualized by the tools to display the up/down status in an understandable context.

Network inventory:
Maintains network resources as well as tracking and managing network assets. It is a physical representation of the automated procedures that allot resources, choose configuration modifications, and automatically activate.

Network on Chip (NoC): 
On-chip computer networks configured with distributed connections for computing and other resources are referred to as such. The efficiency of conventional on-chip bus topologies is decreased at sub-32-nanometer size due to increasing electrical noise and cross-talk. An error-correcting protocol and a network-like structure are necessary for complex system-on-chip (SoC) devices. A globally asynchronous locally synchronous (GALS) structure is likely the topology.

Network security: 
These precautions are taken to guard a communications conduit against unwanted access and unintentional or deliberate interference with normal functioning.

Network topology: 
It specifies the links, nodes’ schematic arrangement, physical and logical connections, or some hybrid.

Network virtualization: 
It is the process of merging network resources and functionality from both hardware and software into a single virtual network. This gives users access to routing capabilities and data streams that can deliver more modern, resilient solutions, native security services built into network elements, subscriber-aware policy control for peer-to-peer traffic management, and application-aware, real-time session control for converged voice and video applications with guaranteed bandwidth-on-demand.

Next-generation firewalls (NGFWs): 
These deep-packet inspection firewalls provide application-level inspection, intrusion prevention, and bringing intelligence from outside the firewall in addition to port/protocol inspection and blocking. A standalone network intrusion prevention system (IPS), which comprises a consumer-grade or non-enterprise firewall, or a firewall and IPS in the same appliance that is not tightly linked, should not be mistaken for an NGFW.

Nexus of Forces:
New business scenarios are driven by the convergence and mutual reinforcement of social, mobility, cloud, and information patterns.

Non-cable consumer fixed broadband: 
It includes DSL, Ethernet, FTTH, and fiber high-speed Internet services to the premises (FTTP). Broadband cable is not included.

Non wireline cellular carrier:
It is a word used in the US to describe Block A carriers. Block A or non-wireline systems use 824 and 848 megahertz (MHz) radio frequencies.

Nonvolatile memory called NAND flash features charge-trapping transistors or several floating gates. The binary value is controlled by the bit line and word line, which are coupled to several transistors. The transition of NAND flash from a 2D to a 3D structure was made to accommodate the demand for increasing bit density. NAND memory can have many bits per cell, increasing density but at the expense of performance and endurance:

  • Single-level cell (SLC)
  • Multilevel cell (MLC) (2 bits per cell)
  • 3 bits per cell for TLC
  • 4 bits per cell for QLC

NAS(Network attached storage):
A class of storage devices designed to be used as a dedicated file or storage management server connected to the enterprise’s network and packaged with the necessary hardware and software. The ideal NAS can be brought online without shutting down the web, is platform- and OS-independent appears to any application as another server, and doesn’t require any modifications to other company servers.

Natural-language understanding (NLU): 
Computers can understand the grammar and meaning of human language (such as English, Spanish, and Japanese), enabling people to communicate with the computer using everyday language.

NCOP(Network code of practice):
A set of guidelines for network design that serve to uphold technical standards.

Near Field Communication (NFC):
It is a wireless technology that offers a range of proximity- and contactless-based applications, including mobile marketing, payments, information retrieval, and device pairing. It operates within a 10 cm or smaller range using the 13.56 MHz frequency spectrum. For NFC operation, there are now three defined user modes: 1) Card emulation, 2) Tag reading, and 3) Peer-to-peer (P2P). These modes are based on the ISO/IEC 14443 A/B, ISO15693, and ISO18092 standards, among others. The industry organization that specifies the application of these standards is the NFC Forum. It has started a logo certification program to guarantee compatibility across devices made by various chipset vendors and equipment manufacturers.

Net profit margin: 
Net income is divided by total revenue to arrive at this figure.

These are portable computers with screens ranging from five to ten inches, running a complete version of the client operating system like Windows 7, Windows XP, or a Linux PC OS. They come in clamshell shapes.

Network and system management (NSM): 
This refers to where network administration, system management, and networking converge. The goal of NSM commonly referred to as “networked systems management,” is to make it possible to administer a distributed group of systems in a way that is comparable to how numerous centralized data centers are managed.

Network configuration and change management (NCCM) tools: 
This concentrates on finding and recording network device configurations, spotting, auditing, and alerting on changes, comparing structures with the policy or “gold standard” for that device, and sending configuration updates to multivendor network devices.

Network intelligence (NI):
It is an enabling technology that enables communications service providers (CSPs) to collect network traffic awareness at the subscriber, service, and application levels. As a result of the analysis and exposure of this data for integration with other back-office applications, CSPs can implement granular policies to affect customer experience and adjust to changing application and service usage patterns. CSPs can utilize the solution on any network because it is built on nonproprietary hardware and software platforms.

Network management:
These programs are made to track resource consumption over time, measure and optimize performance, manage network topology, identify and fix network defects, provision and reconfigure network elements, and account for network components. Also included in this category are suites that only manage TCP/IP applications for networks but also contain provisioning/configuration, accounting, performance management, fault monitoring, and diagnostics. This network management market is targeted at primarily or exclusively network-oriented goods used by businesses. Network CM tools are also categorized under this heading. These utility control, modify, gather, and recover data about network devices (such as bridges, routers, switches, and so forth).

Network operating system: 
It is a collection of software tools that, when used in tandem with an operating system, create the LAN user interface and manage network activity. Users can exchange files and peripherals and communicate with one another thanks to a network operating system that interacts with the LAN hardware. A NOS typically offers security, directory services, and file-to-print services.

Network performance tuning/configuring facilities: 
This relates to the capacity to centrally and dynamically construct combinations of LANs and WANs based on the foresight and prioritization of data traffic quantities. Physical data pathways might be set up according to the data flow content (i.e., transaction type). This is particularly crucial for applications that use online transaction processing (OLTP).

Network video recorders (NVRs):
These IP-based devices are created specifically for managing cameras, recording footage, and watching camera feed at a location. NVRs are often manufactured from commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware components and are PC-grade or low-end server systems. Typically, they house a client operating system or an embedded video management software system. This software gives users access to tools for viewing, recording, and managing camera feeds.

Neural network: 
It is a form of data processing that transforms between complicated items (such as audio and video) and tokens appropriate for traditional data processing, and biological neurons inspired it.

Next-generation network (NGN): 
It is a general phrase used to explain how fixed and mobile network infrastructures evolved from separate, proprietary networks to converged networks based on IP.

Niche market:
It is one when there are few suppliers of a good or service.

Node B:
According to the 3GPP, a radio base station receiver is referred to by this WCDMA/UMTS acronym. Both radio coverage and data conversion between the radio network and RNCs are performed by it.

It describes actions taken by a business or its supply chain that do not directly meet the needs of end customers. Consider these as services that customers would not be willing to pay for.


It is a computer system made to be carried about. It usually measures 8.5 by 11 inches, weighs less than 8 pounds with the battery and weight-saving components, and comes with a battery. Flat-panel color screens with a resolution of at least Super Video Graphics Array (SVGA) are common in notebooks. They have specially inbuilt pointing devices and provide extension through PC-Card technology.

A subcategory of cloud services known as “Network as a Service” allows users to use network/transport connectivity services and inter-cloud network connectivity services.


A computer executes a program to translate IP addresses into associated Internet domain names and the other way around.


A LAN can employ a single IP address for interactions with the Internet and a collection of IP addresses for internal traffic thanks to the network address translation standard.


A collection of linked computers that can exchange information. A network can be as small as a few personal computers connected to a local area network (LAN) or as big as the Internet, a global network of computers.


Network adapter:
Also known as an adapter or network interface card, this item links your computer to a network.


Network hub:
A location where all networked devices converge.


Network news messages are posted, distributed, and retrieved using the Network News Transport Protocol.


Network monitoring:
All your essential network systems may be configured and remotely monitored with the ITAdOn Cloud-based Network Monitoring solution (email, servers, routers, available disk space, backup applications, critical virus detection, and more). If an issue is found, our system notifies the ITAdOn Technical Support Center so that we can address it. Depending on the predetermined instructions from your network engineers, we’ll either fix the issue immediately, postpone it until the following working day, or just let you know about it. Please click here to learn more.


Network security:
A network administrator’s rules and procedures for preventing and monitoring unauthorized access, misuse, modification, and denial of the computer network and its resources are referred to as network security. Access to data on the web is authorized with the help of network security, which a network administrator manages. Modern network security mechanisms are used by ITAdOn while still granting trusted people access to crucial documents and programs. We take very seriously keeping up with the most recent network security tools, threats, and industry advances because every organization has different demands, and hackers constantly change their tactics. Please click here to learn more.


(Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards) . It is a nonprofit organization that promotes the open and collaborative creation of e-business specifications using open standards like SGML and XML.

Object instance: 
It is a particular instance of an object. An instance would be a specific message in a mail document.

Object role modeling: 
It is a patented technique that communicates data design aspects in English. The goal is for developers to make it simple for end users unfamiliar with modeling notation to view the elements.

Object-based technologies: 
These are technologies that allow for the encapsulation of things.

Object-oriented programming (OOP):
Programming, in this manner, identifies classes of objects that are closely related to the methods (functions) with which they are associated. It also covers the concepts of attribute and method inheritance. It is a method for storing data and the operations required to process it based on the mathematical field known as “abstract data types.” Programming could advance to a more abstract level thanks to OOP.

Occam Process: 
It is a solderless method of producing electronics. The technique uses a reverse-order connectivity solution that applies well-established, low-risk, well-known essential assembly technologies in the original order. Printed circuit boards (PCBs) and conventional solder are replaced with component connections made through plating or printing after being kept in place by an encapsulating process.

Olfactory interfaces: 
These create fragrances using a digital signature. They comprise a selection of odorants, a flow delivery mechanism, and a control algorithm that establishes the stimulus’s concentration, mixing ratios, and timing. The diffuser is often a series of nozzles equipped with microvalves or inkjet printer nozzles that release gels or liquid droplets via electrostatics or heat. The palette holds odorants in either gel or microencapsulated form. A complete interface can also detect smells that people release.

On-device monitoring:
These programs use client software installed on the user’s device (mobile, IPTV, tablet, PC, or broadband hub) to collect data on how the customer uses it. These applications can be used for individual or collective defect detection and repair, customer service information during a customer encounter, or data during device or service testing.

Online complex processing:
It is a development of online transaction processing (OLTP) that incorporates batch processing and concurrent ad hoc querying.

Online transaction processing (OLTP):
Short transactions that capture business events define this processing mode, typically requiring high availability and swift response times. For this class of applications, a response to a service request must be provided in a predictable amount of time that is close to “real-time.” Transaction processing brings terminals online so they may rapidly update the database to reflect changes as they happen, in contrast to traditional mainframe data processing, which only processes data at predefined periods. To put it another way, a transaction changes this model’s representation of the real-time business from one state to another. Reservations, scheduling, and inventory control are just a few complex tasks requiring up-to-date information.

Open data:
Information or content has been made freely usable and distributable, with the sole demand that the source is acknowledged. The phrase may also be used more colloquially to refer to any information shared outside the company. For purposes other than those for which it was initially intended, such as with clients, customers, or trade associations. “open” data is subject to several restrictions and licensing, detailed at

Operating model: 
It serves as a guide for creating and delivering value to the intended audience. An operating model puts the business model into action and carries it out. An organization’s use of information and technology (I&T) capabilities to accomplish its strategic goals is represented by an information and technology (I&T) operational model. An enterprise operating model explains how the organization sets up its resources to carry out its operations and provide the business outcomes specified in the business model.

Operational resilience: 
It is characterized by initiatives that broaden business continuity management programs to concentrate on the effects, related risk appetite, and tolerance levels for disruption of the delivery of goods or services to internal and external stakeholders (such as employees, customers, citizens, and partners).

The following risk domains used in the business delivery and value realization process are covered by these initiatives, which coordinate management of risk assessments, risk monitoring, and execution of controls that have an impact on the workforce, operations, facilities, technology (IT, OT, IoT, physical, and cyber-physical), and third parties:

  • Security (cyber and physical)
  • Safety
  • Privacy
  • Continuity of operations
  • Reliability

Opportunity management system (OMS):
It is the foundation for any sales force automation (SFA) design because of its tight ties to the sales process. The OMS is superior to all other applications. The OMS and other programs on users’ portable PCs exchange transactions. Applications from different vendors can be combined.

Option analysis: 
According to this statistical technique, a future IT investment’s cost and return will be impacted by changes throughout time. The IT organization must uphold the initial choice if it is powerless to alter it. However, the IT organization can decide to pursue IT investments that are later judged to be lucrative by setting up an option for a decision in the future.

Original equipment manufacturer (OEM):
It is a technology business that sells products made by other companies under its brand.

Outcome-driven metrics:
These operational and business outcome measures offer a clear path to the results on which they depend and the results that depend on them. Situation-driven metrics can be employed to control operational risk and establish situational awareness. They can also assess whether technology is ready to support business results. They gauge the degree of protection provided by various control classes in cybersecurity.

It is the non-invasive installation of a networking component within the wired infrastructure. To connect endpoint functionality to a central controller providing a range of data, management, and control plane capabilities, overlays typically use tunneling techniques.

Object class: 
The collection of objects can be characterized in terms of the characteristics that its constituent parts share since all email systems have some features; generic email, for instance, maybe an object class.

Object late binding:
It is a runtime message interpretation. Instead of building an integrated object, late binding integrates objects at runtime. This substantially improves flexibility.

Object transaction monitor (OTM):
It is an application program representing a consistent model for a modular and potentially highly distributed environment. It functions similarly to the mainframe Customer Information Control System (CICS), but not in spirit.

Object-oriented analysis and design (OOA&D):
These tools help develop highly modular and reusable software and frequently use the Unified Modeling Language (UML) syntax with various techniques. They also support object analysis and design technologies. Most people also favor using DSL concepts in addition to UML. Instead of being viewed as individual parts of a system with pre-existing relationships, applications, data, networks, and computer systems are handled as objects that may be combined and matched in various ways. As a result, data or an application do not need to be linked to a particular system or platform. Please be aware that the de facto standard for OOA&D tools is the Object Management Group’s (OMG) UML standard.

ODM(Own design manufacturer):
A business that designs, develops, and produces mobile devices for clients. The mobile device vendor, cellular service provider, or contract partner’s brand is used for marketing these products to end consumers. ODMs include companies like Taiwan-based BenQ, VGC, and HTC.

Offshore programming: 
A user in North America can choose to have application maintenance work done in India. It refers to a company contracting for software services to be performed in a nation other than its own.

It is the seamless fusion of physical and digital assets, usually in the retail sector.

It is the business procedure companies carry out between when an applicant accepts an offer of employment and when the new hire is productive at work. The onboarding program contains the following:

  • Administrative tasks (like signing up for benefits).
  • Provisioning tasks (such as allocating office space, providing user IDs, and allocating employer property).
  • Orientation tasks (connecting with colleagues and training).

Some businesses include employee performance management in the onboarding process.

Open architecture: 
It is a technological infrastructure with open as opposed to closed specifications. This comprises privately designed architectures, the specifications of which are made public by their designers and officially recognized standards.

Open Mobile Alliance:
By guaranteeing service interoperability across devices, regions, service providers, operators, and networks, it is an industry open-standards forum established to promote widespread user adoption of mobile data services.

Operating system (OS): 
It is a piece of software that controls how information enters and exits a primary processor after being loaded into the computer by an initial boot program. Operating systems (OSs) carry out intricate duties such as memory management, display control, file management, networking, and resource allocation between applications and system components. Applications, middleware, and other infrastructure elements can all operate on top of the OS basis. An operating system often offers GUI and command-line interfaces for user-computer communication.

Operational resource management: 
It is a technique for better understanding the cost of goods and services to produce enterprise-wide financial control that simplifies the procurement process for maintenance, repair, and operations (MRO) (indirect interests) and supply chain management.

Operations support system (OSS): 
This makes it easier for a communication carrier’s transport network to function. One way to think about an OSS is as a network-facing system.

Order management:
It is a commercial procedure rather than a niche market. As it directs goods and services through order entry, processing, and tracking, most of the functionality attributed to order management is integrated inside and touches components within the CRM, ERP, and SCM markets.

OSI management: 
It refers to the tools for managing, coordinating, and keeping an eye on the assets that support communications in an Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) setting.

To increase efficiency and reduce costs, services typically performed internally are transferred to a third-party service provider.

Object data model: 
It is an object-oriented data paradigm that links procedures with objects that can gain from class hierarchies. In this way, “objects” are abstraction levels that include properties and behavior. An object-oriented data model adds a permanent object management and shareability world to the individual program space.

Object Request Brokers (ORBs): 
Compared to their predecessors, RPC middleware, these enhanced platforms offer program activation, which most RPCs did not. The activation and communications services tailored explicitly to the object-oriented software model are part of full-featured CORBA ORBs, which are transactional platforms with a particular affinity for the object-oriented programming paradigm. To support demanding commercial applications, ORB vendors introduced transaction management, security, and other features to their ORBs. The generally accepted standard programming model for ORBs has developed as OMG CORBA.

Object-based middleware: 
Even when the software is spread across multiple computers, runtime software enables objects (components) to collaborate with a container program or another.

Object-Oriented Database Management System (OODBMS):
The management of persistent objects on behalf of numerous users, with features for security, integrity, recovery, and contention management, is done using concepts from object-oriented programming. Abstract data types, classes, inheritance mechanisms, polymorphism, dynamic binding, and message passing are the “objects” that an OODBMS is built upon.

Object-Oriented Technology (OOT): 
In this software design model, objects hold data and the instructions that process that data. It is being used more and more in distributed computing.

ODP(On Device Portal):
Small, downloadable mobile applications made available by media companies, device manufacturers, and some carriers that facilitate users’ “off-deck” (i.e., via independent websites) access to new services, including music, videos, games, and applications. The standard operator strategy for distributing media has been to restrict access to a “walled garden” of content that the operator controls. Consumers have disliked this; thus, many operators now permit open Internet access to raise revenue from growing data traffic. ODPs include the top-level menu on the Apple iPhone and mobile apps like Flickr and Facebook. Observe the off-deck portal as well.

It is a particular kind of outsourcing when employment or organizational activities are moved from one nation to another, frequently to lower labor costs.

On-time in full (OTIF) :
The fill rate is multiplied by time to calculate this supply chain measure. This ideal OTIF satisfies the perfect order specification when an excellent fill rate and perfect on-time are employed at the order level.

This is a set of standardized and lightweight Web-friendly application programming interfaces (APIs) that communications service providers (CSPs) can use to expose their networks, according to the telecom industry, which the Global System leads for Mobile Communications Association (GSMA) and the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA). The current OneAPI specs, which are at version 3 beta (released from February to April 2012) and build on version 2.0 specifications, add the following features: Femto Zonal Presence, Customer Profile, and Anonymous Customer Reference.

Open source:
This term refers to software that may be provided for free or a fee, including the right to use, copy, and distribute it either precisely as is or with modifications. It would be best if you made the source code accessible.

Operational Data Store (ODS): 
It is an alternative to letting operational decision support system (DSS) applications access data directly from the transaction processing database (TP). Both require a lot of planning, but the ODS tends to concentrate on the operational needs of a specific business process (for instance, customer service), as well as the requirement to allow updates and propagate those updates back to the source operating system from which the data elements were obtained. On the other hand, the data warehouse offers a framework for decision-makers to access data for strategic analysis, which frequently calls for historical and cross-functional data and the need to support several applications.

Operational technology (OT): 
Hardware and Software directly monitor and manage industrial assets, equipment, processes, and events to identify or initiate a change.

Optimization routines: 
These are employed to identify the ideal response to a specific issue. These procedures, which are typically tactically oriented for usage in ongoing operations, are incorporated in supply chain execution and supply chain planning programs to decrease costs or time in the supply chain.

Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs): 
These particular kinds of LED have an organic compound-based emissive electroluminescent layer. The layer is often made of polymers that emit red, green, or blue light when a voltage is applied. The array of pixels produced by a matrix of lines and columns can be placed onto various surfaces. OLED displays offer high-quality, high-contrast, even full-motion video, and they are similar to LCDs in that they have no backlight and have quick individual pixel responses.

Organizational structure: 
It is a system that establishes an organization’s hierarchies and internal processes. How staff members and resources are organized into departments or business units depends on the organizational principle.

Organizational structures are often task-based or outcome-based (grouping individuals who perform similar types of work, as in functional alignments) (grouping employees who do different types of work to support a particular business objective, such as products, processes, or customer segments).

Outage management system (OMS): 
It is a software tool for utility network management that simulates network topology for secure and effective field activities connected to outage restoration. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems for real-time confirmed switching and breaker operations and call centers are firmly integrated with OMSs to give rapid, accurate, customer-specific outage information. To manage service restoration actions safely and effectively, these systems track, group, and show outages.

Over the air (OTA): 
It describes the capability of downloading programs, services, and settings through a cellular or mobile network.

Optical character recognition is the process of reading text from a hard copy using a visual scanning device and converting it to a computer-readable format (e.g., an ASCII file). OCR systems feature sophisticated software for image analysis and an optical scanner for reading text.

ITAdOn is aware that organizations are shifting a growing portion of their vital infrastructure to cloud-based service providers. We now refer to offering management and support for your Cloud-based systems and processes as “On-Cloud.”

A person often offers support at the workplace or for a business with technical training.

A phrase that now generally means “connected to the Internet.” Additionally, it’s used to describe items that are prepared to receive commands from a computer, such as a printer, or contents that are saved on a computer (such as an online newsletter).

Scalable computer typefaces are available in the OpenType format. It was constructed on the foundation of its forerunner, TrueType, keeping TrueType’s fundamental structure while adding numerous complex data structures for defining typographic behavior. Microsoft Corporation is the registered owner of the trademark OpenType.


P2P(Peer to peer):
Instead of routing traffic through centrally controlled servers and networks, this form of networking allows computers to connect directly with one another.

Packet switched network:
A network for data transmission in which information is sent in discrete units called packets. These are split up such that each package is a component of an entire message that may be routed via a network of switches to its destination without affecting the other packets that make up the same message.

Pain points: 
These are distinct issues that existing or potential clients in the market may have. The customer’s difficulties on their journey are referred to as pain points.

Parallel processing:
The resolution of a single issue using multiple processors. Today, only a small amount of parallel processing is carried out outside of research labs due to the difficulty of dividing jobs into distinct components and the need for compiler technology that will widely parallelize application code.

Partner Relationship Management (PRM):
This makes it possible for companies that use indirect sales channels (including agents, brokers, dealers, distributors, and value-added resellers [VARs]) to manage sales-related tasks like lead management, deal registration, and opportunity management more successfully and effectively.

Pattern-Based Strategy:  
The discipline allows business leaders to look for, magnify, analyze, and take advantage of novel business trends. An indication of a business opportunity or threat is a group of recurrent and connected factors (business activity, events, weak or strong signals). A piece of information, action, or event that signals an imminent change that could affect your business pattern is known as a weak or a strong signal. The phrase “business pattern framework” describes an organization’s emphasis on and investment in a balanced diversity of business activities (in the categories of defined, inventive, collective, and exceptions) that allow it to take the initiative and react to both weak and strong signals of change (opportunity or threat).

PC virtual software appliance: 
By using an appliance approach, businesses can deliver specific functions (such as firewalls, asset management, TV recorders, and media players) as separate modules that run alongside, rather than on top of (or from within), a standard PC OS.

PCO(Physician Contracting Organization):
A legal organization contracts with other organizations to deliver healthcare services and comprises numerous doctors, practices, and clinics.

PDM(Product Data Management):
The main application backbone for managing and controlling the flow of design intent across the three main design stages—concept design, detail design, and production—has historically been positioned as PDM technologies and products. However, in practice, PDM has acted as a complementary application tower to computer-aided design (CAD) and enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems by acting as the primary repository for engineering data that has been approved for production (i.e., vaulting) and by controlling the changes to production-approved data (e.g., engineering change orders and configuration management). A contemporaneous art-to-product environment (CAPE) for enterprise-wide design and production can be built with the help of PDM.

Penetration Testing:
Penetration testing uses multistep and multivector attack scenarios that first identify vulnerabilities and then try to exploit them to go farther into the company infrastructure. This is a step beyond vulnerability scanning. Since this is how sophisticated targeted attacks operate, penetration testing offers insight into collections of configuration errors or security holes that could result in an episode with negative business consequences. At the very least, penetration testing provides a way to rank the vulnerabilities with the most significant risk.

Performance management: 
The mix of procedures and metrics enables users to design, monitor, and optimize outcomes required to accomplish organizational goals and objectives is what is referred to as it.

Persona management:
The emerging class of tools enables individuals participating in numerous social communities to keep track of and convey what they are saying in the context in which they are saying it.

Phasor measurement units (PMUs, or synchrophasors):
This assists in determining the actual risk state of the system and gives instantaneous representations of voltages and currents at significant power grid points. PMU deployment can aid transmission operators in the quick identification of frequency fluctuations that could be a sign of an impending blackout. Operators can increase transfer capacity, control traffic, and more successfully integrate renewable energy.

Photonic crystal displays: 
These photonic crystalline materials reflect light in reflecting displays that can be built and engineered to control how light travels through space (photons).

Physical resource and infrastructure management tools: 
The physical components of data center infrastructures, such as the IT gear, cables, power distribution units, generators, and space, are monitored, modeled, and assisted in managing by these software packages. They are used to optimize existing data centers and design new ones that have the best possible thermal, electrical, and spatial performance. Additionally, they offer change, configuration, and asset management capabilities and are built for use in the regular operations of data centers.

Pipeline velocity:
The rate at which qualified leads progress through a sales pipeline is what matters. The correct way to calculate pipeline velocity is a hotly contested subject.

Platform as a Service (PaaS):
An example of a cloud service is a platform as a service (PaaS), which offers middleware (application infrastructure) capabilities as a service. Application Platform as a Service (PaaS), Integration PaaS (iPaaS), API Management PaaS (apimPaaS), Function PaaS (fPaaS), Business Analytics PaaS (baPaaS), IoT PaaS, and Database PaaS are just a few of the various varieties of PaaS that Gartner tracks (dbPaaS). PaaS capabilities can be provided in multitenant or dedicated, provider- or self-managed configurations.

Audio (audio and video) materials are created especially for synchronization and playback on portable audio players, such as Apple’s iPod and mobile phones with MP3 playback capabilities. This content is frequently free, current, and sourced from radio or television broadcasts. Podcasts are an excellent example of “sticky” content because they entice listeners to subscribe to a “channel” that is typically updated daily or weekly with fresh material. See the mobisode as well.

A mistake-proofing tool or process to stop a flaw from occurring during order processing or production.

It is a popular website providing various services, products, and vendor links. It serves as a value-added middleman by choosing the content sources and compiling them into a user-friendly, personalized interface for presentation to the end user. Web search, news, reference tools, access to online stores, and communication tools like email and chat rooms are among the services that portals often provide.

Portable Flash Media For Content Distribution:
The dissemination of media using detachable flashes memory devices, such as flashcards and USB drives, is known as portable flash media for content distribution. The media might be short or long and frequently refers to songs, films, TV shows, video game software, maps, e-books, and other consumer products. Not to be confused with one-time programmable memory, such as mask ROM or 3D memory, frequently used to store gaming software content, the memory utilized is based on reprogrammable NAND flash memory.

Postmodern ERP: 
It is a technology strategy that integrates administrative and operational business capabilities (like finance, HR, purchasing, manufacturing, and distribution) and automates them with the correct levels of integration to strike a balance between vendor-delivered integration’s advantages and the flexibility and agility of the company. The administrative and operational categories of ERP strategy are highlighted in this definition.

Predictive analytics:
It is an advanced analytics technique that looks at data or content to determine what is likely to occur. Techniques including regression analysis, multivariate statistics, pattern matching, predictive modeling, and forecasting are used to describe it. Predictive models evaluate previous patterns, connections, and actions to predict a customer’s probability of responding to a marketing effort.

Predictive Modeling:
A popular statistical method for forecasting behavior is predictive modeling. Data-mining technology called predictive modeling solutions creates a model by studying past and present data and using it to forecast future results. Predictive modeling involves:

  • Gathering data.
  • Creating a statistical model.
  • Making predictions.
  • Validating (or updating) the model when new data becomes available.

For instance, risk models can be developed to intricately link member information with demographic and lifestyle data from other sources to increase underwriting accuracy. Predictive models examine prior performance to determine how probable a customer will display a given behavior in the future.

Prerelational DBMS:
Before the widespread adoption of relational theory, DBMS designs were established. Prerelational DBMSs often have a navigational (also called network) or hierarchical structure as their foundation.

Print Markets And Management Hardware:
This segment includes copiers and printers.

  • Copiers — Copiers transport and capture images. Digital (digital scanning and printing technology) and analog (optical technology) copiers fall under this category.
  • Printers — A printer is a computer system’s peripheral output device that prints computer-generated graphics on paper using different marking techniques. The device must be able to use plain or coated documents at least as large as International Organization for Standardization A4, US size A (letter), or continuous forms with an 8-inch print width or more prominent to be classified in this segment; however, it excludes products that support paper widths above A2 or US size C. (17 inches by 22 inches). Other groups of application-specific printers, such as point-of-sale printers, video printers, and specialized picture printers, are also not included in the definition.

Privacy management tools:
This aids businesses in conducting privacy effect analyses, verifying that processing activities adhere to privacy standards, and monitoring occurrences that result in the unlawful exposure of personal data (investigation, remediation, reporting). They enable the creation and distribution of privacy rules (for which they supply templates), evaluate and record data flows of personal information (type of the data, purpose of processing, and data controller), and monitor user awareness (users acknowledge having read the policies).

Problem management:
the primary purpose of a call center’s customer service and support (CSS) application. It manages a multitier, multi-owner service and support environment, enables pattern analysis, offers management reports, and simplifies the process of asking for more service and support resources by giving precise figures regarding the service workload and its varying nature. PM technologies help observe compliance since they can track service-level agreements (SLAs).

Process management:
The practice of telecom expense management (TEM), which is unique to the communications environment, includes the business operations carried out by the IT and finance departments to purchase the provision (and support) of corporate telecom assets. TEM is developing services or procuring services from third parties to manage the telecoms supply chain. According to Gartner, the component services of TEM include business intelligence, sourcing, ordering and provisioning, inventory management, invoicing and contract management, user management, and dispute resolution.

Processor emulation: 
Software built for one processor/operating system can operate on a system with a different processor/operating system without requiring any source code or binary modifications, thanks to a virtualization technique. This is accomplished by dynamically translating active system calls and processor instructions while running a program.

Procurement network:
Integration as a Service (IaaS) is a type of business process network that is specifically designed with applications to support one or more procurement processes, such as Purchase to Pay, with e-catalog management and purchase order document exchange Supplier Information Management, credential document and firmographic data storage E-sourcing, with opportunity listings for suppliers, and support for supplier electronic bid submission networks have as their defining feature the ability to manage and exchange data between parties.

Product Catalog:
It contains every commercial product data necessary for product marketing managers to specify and locate new product offerings. This includes specific tool sets that enable the creation of new product and service bundles, pricing, and discounts.

Product cost management:
It is a technology that anticipates and records estimations of the prices of goods, systems, or solutions throughout their lifetimes. Software features allow users to track actual costs against projected prices, capture estimated costs, and predict costs. It offers analytical tools for locating the main cost drivers and for comparing historical predicted/estimated costs with actual and prospective predicted/estimated costs for solutions, services, and products to make profitable trade-offs.

Product Marketing: 
It involves putting a product to market and managing its success by increasing demand and utilization. It involves marketing and selling a product to a customer and serves as a middleman between developing new products and raising brand recognition.

Production devices: 
These include printers, stand-alone copiers, and multifunction printers (MFPs) with a print speed of over 70 ppm in monochrome and color. Production printers carry out three distinct printing processes:
Statements, bills, notices, and other transactional papers printed in large quantities are included in transaction printing. Transaction printing is combined with direct marketing, promotional materials, and marketing pieces with the addition of personalized color products as color print usage increases. Documents used in transactions with a promotional message or third-party advertising are referred to as “trans promo.”

  • Direct marketing, such as direct-mail packages.
  • Publishing that includes short-run printing, print-on-demand (POD) booklets, catalogs, manuals, and brochures, which are printed on an as-needed basis. POD is also being used to print books published in limited volumes.

Programmable infrastructure: 
Enterprises can use programmable interfaces to dynamically alter data center and cloud infrastructure thanks to the use of tools and techniques from software development.

Project Management Office (PMO): 
It is typically developed to address a particular issue: the IT organization’s inability to deliver IT projects on schedule, within budget, and according to scope. Project managers may “live” in the PMO, other IT departments like application development, or even the business depending on their role.

Before expanding their purview to include program management or portfolio management, most PMOs begin by addressing project management and delivery difficulties. While the focus of initiatives shifts from IT-intensive projects to enterprise-wide business and IT initiatives, the scope of work shifts from tactical to strategic. The PMO typically receives requests to assist in managing business projects once it has established credibility with the business.

It is the first stage of the sales process, which entails locating and getting in touch with potential clients. The creation of a database of possible clients is the aim of prospecting.

Protocol stack:
A predetermined protocol with options that can be implemented as a product and are appropriate for specific functions. Additionally, known as a functional standard or 

Proxy Agent:
An intermediary network management agent that allows management via proxy, or on behalf of the device, between an unmanaged device and a management system.

PSK(Phase shift keying):
Using current, discrete phase changes for phase modulation.

PTR(Peak transaction rate):
A total number of wireless transactions per access point made by all mobile devices over a specific time.

Public key cryptography:
An encryption method created to get around secret-key cryptography’s restrictions (see separate entry). Public key cryptography, also known as “asymmetric key,” encrypts and decrypts messages using two mathematically related keys: a public key and a private key. A public-key system enables secure communication by using the recipient’s public key to encrypt your message. The recipient’s public key is known to everyone else, but it cannot be used to decrypt a communication that has been encrypted with it. The message can only be decrypted using the accompanying private key, which is only known to the receiver. 

Publish/Subscribe Architecture:
Processes that obtain or receive messages from source programs and post those messages on a system-wide message board, or, to use another expression, place them on a software bus where all other processes can “see” them. Application processes often let the integration broker know which messages they’re interested in by providing one or more rules (IB). Architecture for a software bus is another term for it.

Pulse carrier:
A set of parallel pulses used for modulation

PWM(Pulse width modulation):
A type of information encoding based on changes in carrier pulse duration and additionally known as pulse duration modulation (PDM).

Pace-Layered Application Strategy:
It is a framework for classifying, choosing, controlling, and directing applications to enable organizational change, competitive difference, and innovation.

PACS (Personal Access Communication Services):
For customers operating in the 1,900MHz band, the American National Standards Institute has developed a common air interface standard for low-mobility digital cellular or fixed-wireless access. Also, see mobile WLL.

Paid media: 
It refers to outside marketing initiatives, including sponsored placement, display adverts, branded content, and pay-per-click marketing. For internet firms, paid media is crucial to revenue growth and brand visibility.

PAL (Phase Alternate Line):
A 650-picture-line, 50-hertz (Hz) field frequency color television transmission system was created in West Germany and the UK. View SECAM and NTSC (National Television System Committee) (Sequential Couleur a Memoire).

Parabolic trough: 
This particular system uses concentrated solar power (CSP). Light is focused on pipes at the focal point of a line of long, curved mirrors. These pipes, which extend the whole length of the trough, are filled with oil that the intense sunshine has heated. To heat water, this oil travels through pipelines to a power plant. In a typical steam generator, the generated steam generates electricity. A motor spins the mirrors throughout the day to follow the sun’s path. These systems might have molten salt storage or a co-firing natural gas system to reduce 

It is a task or procedure that all businesses must do to pay their personnel. Paychecks are issued as well as taxes and wages are calculated. Processing payroll can be done internally or, more often, outsourced to a third party. The term “payroll” may also refer to the list of employees that a business must pay for the work they accomplish and who are recorded on its records.

Platform as a Service, or PaaS, is a computing platform that cloud providers supply. This computing platform typically consists of an operating system, an environment for running programming languages, a database, and a web server.

A data communication transmission unit. To reduce the amount of data that needs to be retransmitted whenever mistakes occur, the TCP/IP protocol divides big data files into smaller chunks before delivering them over a network.

The palette of colors that a computer or software program can show. A particular software might only use 256 of the 16 million colors that most modern computers can show. A desktop publishing or graphic design program can also refer to a display box comprising a group of linked tools.

Refers to a specific web page or an HTML document on the Internet; pages typically contain links to similar publications (or pages).

Parallel port:
A computer interface that enables the transfer of several bits at once; is nearly always used to connect a printer. The parallel port on IBM or comparable computers has a 25-pin connector. SCSI ports are parallel, but Macintosh ports are more flexible in the kinds of devices they can support.

A secret string of characters is frequently used with a username to access a protected resource, such as a computer, program, directory, or file.

Usually denotes an IBM PC, a comparable model, or a “personal computer” when used in general. Politically correct is referred to as PC in a different context.

Personal Digital Assistant; a small hand-held computer that, in the most basic version, allows you to store names and addresses, generate to-do lists, book appointments, keep track of projects, manage to spend, take notes, and do calculations. Depending on the model, you can also play MP3 audio files, send and receive emails, do word processing, access the Internet for news, entertainment, stock quotes, play video games, and have an integrated digital camera or GPS receiver.

Thanks to the Portable Document Format formatting style, files can be viewed on various computers regardless of the program initially used to create them. Special formatting, images, and color are kept intact in PDF files, preserving the “look and feel” of the original document. To convert a file into PDF format, you utilize a specialized program or print driver (such as Adobe Distiller or PDF Writer).

A relationship between two computers where both carry-out computations, store data, and send requests to the other (unlike a client-server connection where one computer makes a request and the other computer responds with information).

A programming language called Practical Extraction and Report Language is frequently used to create CGI scripts, which are utilized by most servers to process data that has been received from a client browser.

A process for configuring a computer or software for numerous users. In Windows, for instance, every user is given their own “personality” and collection of pertinent data.

Excellent privacy; an approach to encrypting email messages. PGP employs a private key that keeps decrypting messages you receive and a public key that you distribute to everyone who sends you messages.

A particular kind of directory service, also known as a “phone book.” Follow the instructions the specific website provides when using this directory service to hunt up information.

A trick used by con artists to obtain consumers’ personal information via electronic means. To update or validate your information, phishers will send you emails that look like they are from reputable websites like eBay, PayPal, or other banking institutions. These emails will ask you to click on a link, enter your username and password, and frequently even more information like your full name, address, phone number, social security number, and credit card number.

Packet Internet Groper determines if a specific computer is currently connected to the Internet. It sends a packet to the designated IP address and then waits for a response.

Represents one picture element (or one dot on a computer screen); frequently used as a measuring unit.

An application for viewing multimedia files that your web browser cannot handle internally. Files that require a plug-in can be seen or played without needing to be moved to your computer. In contrast, an assistance application must send the file to your computer first. Examples of plug-ins are Quicktime and Adobe Flash Player (for animation and video) (for streamed files over the Internet).

Plug and play:
A collection of guidelines that let a computer automatically identify, set up, and install the proper device drivers for a given device.

An approach to managing incoming electronic mail is called Post Office Protocol. This protocol, for instance, may be used by email clients to store your incoming messages on a unique network of servers named and distribute them as necessary.

Pop-up blocker:
Any application that disables the pop-up, pop-over, or pop-under ad windows that appear when you use a web browser. 
Ai- any program that removes the advertising windows that pop up when you use a web browser, whether pop-up, pop-over or pop-under.

The act of sending a message to a particular network newsgroup.
Ai- distributing a message to a specific network newsgroup.

A page description language that makes use of high-resolution output devices and is primarily used for printing documents on laser printers, it is the industry standard for desktop publishing. As an illustration, a graphic design saved in PostScript format willprint considerably more clearly at 600 dpi than at 300 dpi.

PostScript fonts:
Fonts that may be produced by a PostScript printer using a single typeface definition are known as outline or scalable fonts, unlike non-PostScript printers, which use bitmaps to represent typefaces and demand a complete set for every font size.

Point-to-Point Protocol is a connection type that uses telephone lines and emulates a direct Ethernet connection. 

A collection of guidelines outlining how to carry out a particular operation by a computer.

Private cloud:
The term “private cloud” refers to a proprietary computing architecture that offers hosted services to a small group of customers behind a safe and reliable infrastructure. It is sometimes referred to as the “internal cloud” or “corporate cloud.” ITAdOn private cloud solutions offer the same capabilities and advantages as shared cloud systems. Still, several drawbacks are eliminated, including control over customer and business data, security concerns, and problems with regulatory compliance. Organizations who require or desire more control over their data than they can obtain from using a third-party shared cloud service can benefit from employing “ITAdOn Private clouds.”

A set of rules that regulate how computers exchange information. Example: error checking for file transfers or POP for handling electronic mail. 

Refers to a particular class of server that serves as a go-between for client applications (such as web browsers) and actual servers. When possible, the proxy server fulfills information requests intercepted by the genuine server. The proposal is sent to the real server when it cannot meet it.

Public domain software:
Any program that isn’t protected by copyright; this software is unrestricted in use—frequently mistaken for “freeware” (free software that the author copyrights). 

They commonly refer to data sent over the Internet and getting data from another computer. To view a specific page, for instance, use your web browser. Unlike “push” technology, which sends info to you without your explicit request,

The act of transmitting data to a client’s computer without the client asking for it; a term frequently used to describe data sent over the Internet. An illustration would be a subscription service that sends personalized news to your desktop. In contrast to using “pull” technology to browse the World Wide Web, you must request a web page before it is transmitted to your computer.


QA(Quality Assurance):
Metrics of process or standard compliance have historically received much attention from the National Committee on Quality Assurance (NCQA).

A portable device that can enable voice and data communications on four separate frequency bands while adhering to a single-bearer technology, such as GSM. For instance, numerous European nations and markets, Asia/Pacific, and North America have granted permission to build GSM networks over the 900MHz and 1,800MHz spectrums. Suppose the “home” operator has roaming agreements with regional mobile network operators. In that case, a quad-band phone enables the user to automatically switch between networks on any of these frequencies in these countries. See also tri-band, dual-band, and dual-mode.

Quantitative Finance: 
Highly complex mathematics and enormous data sets are used to assess financial markets.

Quick response codes (QR codes): 
These are two-dimensional, high-density bar codes that can be read by computer and smartphone cameras with the right software. By using color in any pattern or design that draws attention, such as a logo, color codes allow the same physical space to encode more information. Users take a black-and-white or color image, which the device decodes and then links to the URL included in the code by launching the device’s browser. Any material can be used to print QR codes. In addition to apparel, point-of-purchase displays, packaging, buses, buildings, and business cards, the compact, densely packed bar code works well on printed transaction documents, periodicals, and direct-mail items.
Although users or particular apps claim vastly variable ease of use and outcomes, software that reads QR codes is typically quite effective and dependable. It can read any code in front of the camera, frequently even when it is slightly out of focus or if only part of it is visible. The website owner must still offer pertinent product information, a payment portal, and other content even though the QR code enables the user to go to a URL.

QAM(quadrature amplitude modulation):
Transmission of 9,600 bits per second (bps) across a 2,400-baud line using amplitude, phase, and shift-keying modulation techniques.

Qualified lead: 
It is a prospect generated by the marketing team, evaluated by the sales team, and fits the profile of an ideal customer with the intent to buy. The proper qualification of leads is essential to developing a healthy sales pipeline. 
Ai- It is a prospect that the marketing team has created, the sales team has assessed, and who satisfies the criteria for an ideal client intending to purchase. To have a healthy sales pipeline, leads must be appropriately qualified.

Quantum computing: 
It uses the quantum state of subatomic particles to do nonclassical computation. The quantum bits denote the particles’ representation of information (qubits). A qubit can suppositionally represent all possible values until it is read. Entanglement is the ability of qubits to connect. Quantum algorithms can solve problems with enormous combinatorial complexity by manipulating linked qubits in their indeterminate, entangled state.

Quality of storage service:
Through user-defined policies and adaptive algorithms that control performance and throughput while lowering back-end storage costs, this optimizes the utilization of disk storage system resources. Cache partitioning and binding, input/output (I/O) prioritization, and the automated transfer of files, logical volumes or sub-volumes, or LUNs (also known as auto-tiering), between cache, solid-state drives (SSDs), high-performance and high-capacity disks, and other media (such as cloud or tape), are just a few of the technologies used to provide quality storage services.

Quantum dots: 
These semiconductor-based semiconductor-based nanocrystals emit colorful light. Their diameter, which ranges from two to ten nanometers, is minimal. By adjusting the quantum dot’s size and chemical makeup, the spectrum of colors it emits may be precisely controlled.

Quality of service:
The ability to provide different applications, users, or data flows with varying priorities or to ensure a given degree of performance for a data flow is known as quality of service. For instance, a necessary bit rate, delay, jitter, packet dropping probability, and bit error rate may be guaranteed. In networks where capacity is scarce, such as cellular data communication, quality of service guarantees are crucial if the network capacity is insufficient. This is especially true for real-time streaming multimedia applications like voice-over IP, online games, and IP-TV, which frequently require fixed bit rates and are delay-sensitive.

An alternative to MPEG, this video format was created by Apple Computer and is frequently used for online video files. Playback requires a specialized viewer program, available for Macintosh and IBM PC, and similar machines.


Random Access Memory is the amount of memory software a computer can utilize. sometimes known as “primary memory.” Example: An 8 MB RAM machine has roughly 8 million bytes of memory. In contrast, applications that start your computer and perform diagnostics are stored in ROM (read-only memory).

R-UIM (Removable User Identity Module):
An R-UIM card is a smart card designed to be used with CDMA-based mobile phones, and it was first introduced by the CDMA Development Group (CDG) and the 3GPP2. It stores frequently called numbers, lets consumers swap phones without having to change their mobile numbers, and offers features similar to those of the SIM card in GSM mobile phones.

RAAD (Rapid Architected Application Development):
A method for large-scale application development (AD) that entails the following stages, carried out by up to 10 teams of 10 individuals each over no more than 18 months:

  • Phase 1: Alignment of the technological and business architecture.
  • Phase 2: Identification and specification of functional needs.
  • Phase 3. Initial architecture design, construction, and implementation comprise 
  • Phase 4 entails the program’s first development and testing, including the user interface, data access, and business logic.
  • Phase 5: Initial application installation
  • Phase 6: Concurrent engineering for upcoming construction.
  • Phase 7:Plan for a rapid release, 

A framework or structure that supports networking equipment or computer servers, typically using shelves or mounting plates. Rack units (U), which match the distance between shelf increments in a conventional rack, represent the height of computer equipment (see rack unit).

Rack Density:
The rack density describes the height of a unit. Rack density is described in terms of the number of units, such as one unit (1U), two units (2U), and so on, because each team has a standard height of 1.75 inches. Blade servers are described in terms of the “number of blades per blade chassis/height” (in terms of the classic U height), so 14 blades per 7U would be described as “14/7U.”

Rack Mount:

  • Rack-mountable — A system that can be installed either as a stand-alone unit or in a rack.
  • Rack-Optimized — A system that must be run in a server cabinet.
  • Tower/stand-alone — A system only designed for stand-alone installation.
  • Blade — A separate CPU card called a Blade slides vertically into a standard chassis. Typically, a cabinet or stand-alone chassis with a shared power supply, cooling element, network switches, and connections will host numerous blade cards.

Rack Unit (RU):
The letter “U,” which stands for 1.75 inches, is a standard unit of measurement for the height of a rack-mounted computer or networking equipment. For instance, a 4U server requires seven inches of vertical rack space. An industrial standard rack typically measures 42U (73.5 inches) high by 19 inches wide.

RAD (Rapid Application Development):
An approach to application development (AD) where small teams (usually two to six individuals, but never more than 10) use joint application development (JAD) and iterative prototyping methods to build interactive systems of low to medium complexity in 60 to 120 days.

Radio PAD (Radio Packet Assembler/Disassembler):
For use with packet radio systems, a PAD with an integrated radio transceiver.

Radio-frequency Identification (RFID):
Radiofrequency identification, or RFID, employs radio frequency waves to transmit data between a reader and a tag to identify, track, and locate the tagged item. Passive and battery-enabled tags are the main types used in logistics and transportation. The energy required by passive tags is obtained by the reader’s antenna, which can be either stationary or movable. The two main categories of battery-powered tags are active RFID tag technology and battery-assisted passive (BAP) technology.

RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks):
A technique for mirroring or striping data across multiple low-end disk drives; this improves mean time between failures, throughput, and error correction by copying data across multiple drives.
All RAID levels, except RAID 0, offer automated data recovery in the case of a disk failure. The RAID tiers’ distinguishing characteristics are:

  • RAID-0 — provides disk striping without parity information; data is written in segments across several disks sequentially until the array’s end, at which point writing resumes at the beginning. Provides faster read access times and increased logical drive capacity (multiple segments read simultaneously). RAID-0 offers no data redundancy; if a single drive fails, the entire disk array subsystem is unavailable.
  • RAID-1 — uses disk mirroring to provide fault tolerance (also called shadowing). 100% data redundancy is achieved by duplicating every byte stored on a disk onto a different physical drive. Since duplicate hardware is needed, RAID-1 has the highest cost of all RAID types but offers quick access to data if either the primary or secondary disk fails.
  • RAID-2 — use a complete error detection and repair code (Hamming), with bits of the data pattern written across many disks, to eliminate the 100% redundancy overhead of RAID-1.
  • RAID-3 — comparable to RAID-2, except that data is interleaved over all disks, and each group utilizes a single check disk that contains the bit parity of the data disks. RAID-3 is an excellent choice for applications requiring high data read/write transfer rates for big sequential files since disk reads are carried out throughout the entire array, and all data is sent to the controller in tandem.
  • RAID-4 — Writes the first block on drive 1, the second block on drive 2, and so forth, rather than distributing data blocks among all drives. Since many reads are single blocks (single drives), this strategy significantly reduces the time it takes to read data. This frees up other drives for more read requests.
  • RAID-5 — The specialized parity drive is eliminated by writing parity alongside the data across all drives in the array. As a result, RAID-1 through RAID-4 no longer has a single-write restriction and some performance reduction. The controller can reconstruct the data if a drive fails using the parity and data from the other drives.
  • RAID-6 — provides two-disk parity plus a spare, allowing for the tolerance of two simultaneous disk failures per array of disks. A spare is brought online in the event of a breakdown, and transparent reconstruction starts automatically and quietly in the background with little effect on performance.
  • RAID-10 — a RAID configuration that combines RAID-0 and RAID-1 and offers fault tolerance and striping benefits (disk mirroring).

Random Sampling:
Each sample has an equal chance of being chosen when random sampling is used. It makes an effort to provide a fair depiction of the entire population.

RAS (Reliability, Availability, and Serviceability):
A description of the caliber, availability of extra features, and simplicity of diagnosis and repair of a product.

RDBMS (Relational Database Management System):
A database management system (DBMS) with a Structured Query Language (SQL) application programming interface and support for the relational data model. It’s a DBMS where the database is accessed and arranged following the connections between data items. Tables in a relational database are used to express the relationships between data elements. Instead of using pointers, these tables’ interdependencies are described through data values. As a result, there is a high level of data independence.

RDM (Requirements Definition and Management):
Requirements definition and management (RDM) tools make it easier for development teams to analyze needs, capture requirements in a database-based tool for collaborative review for accuracy and completeness, make it simpler to create use cases and test cases, provide traceability, and make documentation and versioning/change control easier. With graphical tools for process workflow definition, application simulation and prototyping, and other visual, collaborative tools, RDM solutions are increasingly helping business analysts. The database strategy uses specialized repositories that are either included in the requirements management solution or come pre-installed with a general-purpose commercial database integrated with the program.

A term describes an operating system that reacts quickly and predictably to an external event. A real-time operating system, as opposed to a batch or time-sharing system, gives independent continuous physical processes, services, or control. It often contains interrupt capabilities and a priority-scheduling management system, allowing a less important activity to be set aside.

Real-time Analytics:
Real-time analytics is a field of study that uses logic and mathematics to analyze data to produce insights that help decision-makers act swiftly and wisely. Real-time analytics for some use cases implies that they are finished shortly after new data is received, usually within a few seconds or minutes. On-demand real-time analytics offers the analytical results after waiting for people or systems to request a query. Continuous real-time analytics is more proactive and notifies users or initiates actions as events occur.

Real-world Data:
The usage and transaction data produced from the direct measurement of business procedures, logs, and hardware are known as real-world data.

Receiver Sensitivity:
A wireless receiver can pick up the lowest signal strength and still convert to data. Numerous parameters, including location and placement within the wireless device, significantly impact receiver sensitivity.

Reconfigurable Optical Add/Drop Multiplexers (ROADMs):
Reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers (ROADMs) are the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) and synchronous optical network (SONET) markets’ add/drop multiplexing equivalents in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). ROADMs give communications service providers (CSPs) the ability to automatically route individual wavelengths of WDM systems via their networks, primarily in ring arrangements, with the main advantages being protection switching and simple provisioning.

Record to Report (R2R):
Accurate financial data must be gathered, processed, and presented as part of finance and accounting management’s record-to-report (R2R) process. R2R gives management and other stakeholders strategic, financial, and operational feedback on the organization’s performance.

Records Management (RM):
Accurate financial data must be gathered, processed, and presented as part of finance and accounting management’s record-to-report (R2R) process. R2R gives management and other stakeholders strategic, financial, and operational feedback on the organization’s performance.

During the exchange of papers during litigation, sensitive or privileged information is often blacked out using the procedure known as “redacting” in the legal profession. Redaction in electronic documents refers to the complete erasure of data, not its masking or obfuscation.

Redaction Tools:
Before sharing the remaining content with someone who is not authorized to access the original document, redaction tools are programs that alter the content and so consistently and selectively delete information from records or websites. During the exchange of papers during litigation, sensitive or privileged information is often blacked out using the procedure known as “redacting” in the legal profession. Governmental organizations have also employed the method to censor sensitive information while responding to Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests. The content to be omitted is crossed out on a paper copy of the document using a thick black marker in the manual method. Since the beginning of document imaging products, redaction tools have been a component. Redaction in electronic records refers to the complete erasure of data, not its masking or obfuscation.


  1. Amount of the message’s general information can be cut out without losing any crucial details.
  2. Provide additional backup links or equipment that rapidly fills in for malfunctioning links.

Replacing an existing debt obligation with a new loan is refinancing (typically with a lower interest rate, a revised payment schedule, and updated terms).

Regulatory Compliance:
Regulatory compliance concerns the regulations a company must abide by or face legal consequences, including the possibility of sending its officers to prison.

Relational DBMS:
The foundation of the RDBMS architecture is a formal way of building databases with rows and columns based on rules with explicit mathematical justifications. E.F. Codd first developed RDBMSs. Relationships between databases in an RDBMS are built by comparing data, like account numbers and names. Furthermore, an RDBMS can create a new table using the rows that fulfill the matching criteria from any two or more tables.
RDBMSs can be used in a variety of ways. For instance, they can be implemented in memory using the in-memory storage model, on disk using relational or row storage techniques, stored as columns or indexes as in column-based storage, or even implemented in flash memory. RDBMS engines are also offered in various footprints and can be employed as embedded DBMS engines in edge devices and portable or mobile devices. Additionally, we no longer differentiate between data types because most RDBMSs today supports various data types, including objects, user-defined data types, BLOBs, and native XML structures.

Remote Access:
When users are away from the office, remote access allows them to connect to company networks and apps. Remote access can be provided by a variety of technologies, including:

  • Internet-based private networks (VPNs)
  • Network access with zero trust (ZNTA)
  • Desktop virtualization infrastructure (VDI)
  • Desktop as a service (DaaS)
  • isolation of remote browsers (RBI)

Most businesses will utilize more than one technology, as each one offers a variety of use cases, some of which overlap.

Remote Control:
End users and IT staff may safely access and provide remote support for business endpoints (such as end-user devices, servers, or virtual machines) with remote control technologies. Enterprise-class remote control integrates an identity management system with a connection broker to increase security. Remote access and remote desktop services, such as desktop virtualization, should not be confused with remote control (such as virtual private networks).

Remote Diagnostics:
To improve part performance and reliability insights for engineering and product development, remote diagnostic solutions can deliver onboard vehicle-related performance and quality data to a central monitoring application. Through repair and service scheduling automation, remote diagnostics can also enhance customer relationship management.

Remote Work:
Working remotely, commonly referred to as working from home (WFH) or telecommuting, is a flexible work arrangement that enables an employee to conduct business away from the corporate headquarters. This arrangement can assist assure work-life balance, access to career prospects, or lower commuting costs for employees who can finish work offsite. The organization will gain from improvements in productivity, higher personnel retention rates, and cost savings on physical resources. Temporary or permanent, part-time or full-time, infrequently or frequently, remote employment arrangements are all possible. Policies governing the use of equipment, network security, and performance standards are necessary for remote work.

Removable Modules:
Wireless broadband connections to notebook PCs and other mobile computing devices are made possible by data cards and USB modems.

Repeatable Solutions:
Replicable, comprehensive answers to a given process improvement or application need. These traits are generally present in a repeatable solution:

  • Fixed pricing, which occasionally has a shared commercial value.
  • A predetermined delivery timetable with prompt execution.
  • Predetermined performance.
  • A quick prototype for the initial pilot solution, followed by a rollout and minor additions.
  • A prime contractor who serves as the client’s single point of contact.
  • Partner partnerships that have endured many conflicts.
  • Collaboration between the partners in marketing and research and development (R&D).
  • Possibility of residual values, such as royalties, licensing fees, etc.

Repeatable solutions must be focused on particular processes, technologies, subindustries, or contemporary concerns to serve as the foundation of the portfolio of technological solutions (POTS). They need high-end professional services, including software modification, system and network integration, and business process re-engineering.

A repository with the capacity to support both software development and operations management, this facility stores descriptions and behaviors of items within an enterprise, such as requirements, policies, procedures, data, software libraries, projects, platforms, and personnel. It should increase program and installation administration productivity since it serves as a single point of definition for all system resources. While an application repository would have data definitions, a system repository would contain configuration definitions, tuning parameters, and performance objectives.

Request for Proposal (RFP):
A company or government organization may utilize a request for proposals (RFP) as the method and the documentation to obtain quotes for potential business or IT solutions. The RFP document often includes a statement of requirements (SOR) that prospective bidders must satisfy to submit a bid to provide the requested solutions. It may consist of goods and services to meet the demands made. The relevant procurement procedure, evaluation standards, commercial terms and conditions, timetables and activities involved, and what responders should include in their RFP response are all commonly covered in the RFP documentation.

Resource Requirements Planning:
A procedure that translates a production plan or master production schedule into the influence on essential resources, such as person hours, machine hours, storage, standard cost dollars, shipping dollars, and inventory levels.

Response Time:
The interval between a terminal operator finishing an inquiry and getting a reply. The time it takes to respond to a question includes the time it takes for the computer to process it and send back the answer to the terminal. Response time is a standard metric for evaluating an interactive system’s effectiveness.

Retail Digital Signage:
Applications that provide dynamic media content to displays or monitors on the sales floor of a retail store are referred to as retail digital signage. It is also known as digital communications, digital media networks, interactive signage, narrowcasting, and electronic signage networks.

Retail Execution And Monitoring:
For the benefit of consumer goods manufacturers, the retail execution and monitoring technology identifies duties and permits field sales representatives or third-party sales agents to carry out in-store operations. Promotional efforts, asset management, retail audits, and data gathering for proof of performance are a few of these tasks.

Retail Sales:
The other collection of sales applications needed in a retail setting is included in this category. It comprises point-of-sale software, typically a cash register, for keeping track of sales transactions.

Retail System Integrators:
The merchandising, supply chain management, shops, and unified commerce and fulfillment markets comprise service providers that can configure, integrate, install, and upgrade retail operating software. Retail system integrators might provide further services, such as IT and business process outsourcing (BPO) services, strategic consultancy, etc.

Several mobile devices stop working in a particular year. Due to the presence of used equipment, the retirement figure is complicated. Used mobile devices are not included in the sales-to-end-user line when sold in another region with a new connection; instead, they are taken into account in the installed baseline. A large number of secondhand sales could result in fewer retirements.

The number of mobile devices that stop being used in a particular year. The presence of used equipment complicates the retirement rate calculation. Instead of being added to the sales-to-end-user line when a used mobile device from one region is sold in another region with a new connection, the device is considered in the installed baseline. A large number of secondhand sales could result in a lower retirement rate.

Reusable Analog Intellectual Property (IP):
The number of mobile devices that stop being used within a particular year. Due to the availability of used equipment, the retirement rate is problematic. When a pre-owned mobile device from one region is sold in another region alongside a new connection, the device is not added to the sales-to-end user’s line. Still, it is instead taken into consideration in the installed baseline. A high rate of secondhand sales may negatively impact the number of retirements.

A strategy for developing apps that catalogs and makes components accessible so they can be used in other applications.

Gross billings generated by a vendor, expressed in unit currency, constitute revenue. Gross billings generated by a vendor, depicted in unit currency, comprise income.

Revenue Assurance:
A communications service provider (CSP) can accurately collect revenue for all services provided using a method or software solution called revenue assurance. Revenue assurance enables the CSP to examine and plug dozens of actual or potential leakage points throughout the network and customer-facing systems and to correct data before it reaches the billing system, as opposed to remedying errors after they happen or failing to detect and correct them at all. Revenue assurance and other disciplines frequently need help to distinguish from one another. Revenue assurance might occasionally include risk management, fraud control, network assurance, service assurance, and business assurance.

RFID Reader:
An antenna-based radio frequency device called an RFID reader transmits a signal. When the reader queries RFID tags, the tags respond by receiving this signal. The reader interprets the responses and, using several protocols, may connect with all the RFID tags in its vicinity. There are three main types of readers. RFID tags pass through fixed-position portal readers to communicate with the reader. Mobile tools called hand-held readers can share with RFID tags. A specific kind of reader is mounted on moving machinery like cranes and forklifts. They frequently have fixed-location conversations using tags.

RFID Tags:
RFID tags are typically tiny devices that respond to radio frequency interrogation from an RFID reader. Memory, the range over which they may be read, the degree of read and write capabilities, and the accessibility of other computational operations are different characteristics of tags. The tag may contain as little as a product’s serial number or as much data about the product and its past.

  • Passive RFID:
    RFID tags that operate passively have no batteries. It derives all of its power—including that required to respond—from the radio query it sends to the RFID reader. This results in relatively inexpensive gadgets, although they can only read at a reasonably close distance (about 20 feet in the best-operating conditions).
  • Active RFID: 
    Active RFID has batteries attached to respond to a reader more forcefully. They cost much more than passive tags but have a more comprehensive range (up to 300 feet).

Smart Cards:
RFID tags are another name for contactless smart cards. Technically speaking, they are merely RFID tag that has been carefully packed.

Rich Communication Suite (RCS):
A GSMA program called Rich Communication Suite (RCS) aims to provide specifications for Rich Communication Services. The sharing of documents and photographs simultaneously during calls, video calls, “improved” instant messaging, and service discovery is a few. A subscriber’s contact list provides access to all services. Any network and any device will be able to use RCS services. Five phases or releases have been used to establish and develop specifications.

Rich Internet Application (RIA):
Gartner views rich Internet application (RIA) platforms as a composite construct that refers to technologies that allow businesses to create apps that offer a rich, responsive user experience. The phrase “RIA platform” is not always utilized in the industry. Gartner uses it to combine several strategies and technologies into a single overarching concept that encompasses the subcategories of outside-the-browser as well as the JavaScript-enhanced browser, plug-in-enhanced browser, and HTML5-powered browser.

RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer):
A type of processor design that moves the computing task’s analysis from the runtime or execution phase to the preparation or compilation phase. The system can run at faster rates by utilizing less hardware or logic. RISC reduces the quantity and complexity of instructions on the grounds that each instruction can be retrieved and executed more quickly and that less semiconductor real estate is needed to process them. As a result, RISC architectures can create more powerful microprocessors than complex instruction set computer (CISC) architectures for any given semiconductor technology.

This computer instruction set simplification increases processing efficiency. All computers and programs carry out simple instructions, so that idea is accurate. There are five RISC design tenets:

  • Single-cycle execution — For most conventional central processing unit (CPU) designs, the maximum instruction execution rate is one instruction every entire machine cycle. The cycle time has some predetermined lower limit for a specific technology. The majority of compiler-generated instructions are simple, even on sophisticated CPUs. Even at the price of synthesizing multiple-instruction sequences for some less-frequent processes, RISC designs prioritize single-cycle execution.
  • Hard-wired control, little to no microcode – Microcode increases the number of cycles required for each operation by adding a layer of interpretive overhead, so even the most straightforward instructions can take several processes. 
  • Few addressing modes and simple instructions – Complex addressing modes and instructions, such as those involving microcode or multicycle instructions, are avoided.
  • Load and store, register-register design — Only loads and stores access memory; all others perform register-register operations. This tends to follow the previous three principles.
  • Efficient, deep pipelining — To conveniently use hardware parallelism without the complexities of horizontal microcode, fast CPUs use pipelining. An n-stage pipeline keeps up to “n” instructions active at once, ideally finishing one (and starting another) every cycle. The instruction set must be carefully tuned to support pipelining.

Risk Identification (RI):
The word “risk identification” refers to procedures for identifying, describing, and cataloging potential risks to assets and business operations that could harm performance, quality, damage, loss, or reputation. It serves as a starting point for actual risk analysis of the pertinent organizational risks.

Risk Management:
The management of specific business risks between the security governance layer and the enterprise risk management layer is known as risk management, sometimes known as operational risk management or integrated risk management. Risk managers focus on the business’s operational and tactical exposures that may be distilled and abstracted to help them understand enterprise risks. They handle problems including risk management for vendors, audit management, corporate risk and compliance, risk-related legal issues, and even hazards to business continuity. Using data going to and coming from the security management layer is also the bridge where cyber risks are addressed.

Risk Management And Compliance Consulting Services:
According to Gartner, risk management and compliance consulting services are a collection of expert-driven consulting services designed to help businesses identify, manage, and reduce IT and corporate compliance risk. We concentrate on risk and compliance consulting services that directly affect or influence IT, even though there are numerous sorts of risk and compliance in the life of a business.

Risk-adjusted Value Management (RVM):
Using the Risk-Adjusted Value Management (RVM) technique, strategic planning and execution may be completed much more quickly and with higher quality.

RM (Relationship Manager):
An employee who serves as an organizational liaison, generally between a business unit or function and the information services (IS) department. Depending on the level of confidence and power given to the individual in that capacity by their client, the relationship manager may perform a variety of roles. The position’s duties are divided into four levels, with each level representing an increase in corporate trust and responsibility:

  • Level 1: Inform and Communicate
  • Level 2: Advise and Influence
  • Level 3: Coordinate and Integrate
  • Level 4: Manage and Oversee

Relationship management is a matrixed position reporting responsibilities to at least two managers, usually the chief information officer (CIO) and a business function or division manager. However, in reality, the role is typically more closely associated with one side than the other, and it generally is in line with the business management side.

RNC (Radio Network Controller):
performs a similar function to the GSM BSC while supporting the B nodes required by UMTS networks.

a mobile user’s capacity to use cellular services while disconnected from their home network. This comprises technological or automatic roaming between GSM networks, SIM-based roaming in which a user inserts a SIM card into a mobile device from a different network (for example, between a WCDMA network and the GSM network of another operator). Both within a single nation and across international borders, roaming is possible. When a mobile device disconnects from one access point and reconnects with another, this is known as roaming in a WLAN setting.

Robotic Process Automation (RPA):
Robotic process automation (RPA) is a productivity tool that enables a user to set up one or more scripts (referred to as “bots” by certain manufacturers) to activate particular keystrokes automatically. As a result, some actions (transaction steps) inside a more significant business or IT process might be mimicked or emulated by the bots. Data manipulation, transmission to and from various programs, triggering reactions, and transaction execution are a few examples. User interface interaction and descriptor technologies are combined in RPA. The scripts may be overlaid on a single or multiple software programs.

Robotic Process Automation Software:
To execute “if, then, else” statements on structured data, robotic process automation (RPA) systems often combine user interface (UI) interactions with API connections to power client servers, mainframes, or HTML code. An RPA tool works by outlining a process for the software “robot” to follow in the RPA tool language, with runtime allotted by a control dashboard to carry out the script.

ROC (Return on Competitiveness):
A terminology and philosophy that goes beyond the conventional return on investment (ROI) notion by emphasizing the measurement or computation of how investments affect competitiveness. Building a spider diagram that identifies and maps all relevant competitiveness dimensions within a specific industry sector, followed by measuring changes in the overall mapping area for a specified time, is a good way to visualize and quantify the overall return on IT competitiveness (e.g., a year).

ROE (Return on Equity):
A ratio that expresses a company’s financial success as a percentage (net income divided by the stockholders’ equity value).

ROI (Return on Investment):
A percentage represents a corporation’s financial performance (net income divided by the stockholders’ equity value).

ROI (Return on Information Technology):
Gain in money as a result of an organization’s information technology investment.

ROLAP (Relational Online Analytical Processing):
An approach to multidimensionality using relational data that provides multidimensional operations (at first read-only) on top of relational data (heavily denormalized).

Rotary Heat Exchanger (Kyoto Wheel):
A type of air-side economizer that addresses some issues with air-side economizers is the rotating heat exchanger, also referred to as a Kyoto Wheel. The heat wheel transfers heat between divided data center ducts and outside air ducts rather than bringing outside air directly into the server room. Two parallel ducts split the heat wheel in two. The upper half of the wheel is traversed by outside air, and the bottom is by internal air. The wheel is a sizable honeycomb in itself. At a 0-degree angle, a cold honeycomb cell enters the heated duct. As the cell (and rotation) moves through the vent, the interior air warms them until, at 180 degrees, they are hot in front and cool in the rear, cooling the air passing over them. The now-warm cell makes a half-rotation into the air duct outside, which gets cooled. The cycle then starts over when the cool cell enters the warm side. The diameter of the Kyoto Wheel varies from 12 to 20 feet. To maximize heat transfer, rotation is slow—just a few revolutions per minute (rpm)). The humidity and particulate contamination issues associated with direct-transfer, air-side economizers are eliminated in this design since there is barely any air transfer between the outside air and the computer room air (modern designs reduce air transfer to 1% or less).

RSA (Rural Service Area):
Mobile service providers in the US are given 1,900MHz cellular licenses that specify the geographic area in which they can operate. A non-urban site is an RSA. In the US, there are 428 RSAs and 306 MSAs. The previous BTA and MTA designations have a lot of overlap. View BTA, MSA, and MTA as well.

RTT (Round-trip Time):
Measure the network latency, or the interval between making a request and getting a response, in milliseconds. In interactive applications like Web browsing, high latency frequently negatively affects the end-user experience more than bandwidth. Also, see latency.

Runtime Application Self-protection (RASP):
Runtime application self-protection (RASP) is a security solution that can govern how an application is executed and identify and thwart real-time threats. It is integrated into or linked to an application or application runtime environment.

A group of fields contains connected data; in database-style systems, files are used to hold groupings of related entries. An instance would be a personnel file that provides employment details.

A that Windows uses to store configuration data. The majority of 32-bit Windows programs write information to the registry. Although the registry can be edited, doing so is not advised unless essential because mistakes could 

Remote backup:
Users can access a system for the backup and storage of computer files through a remote backup service, an online backup service, or a managed backup service. Automatic data compression and reliable data encryption are features of the ITAdOn remote backup system. This indicates that your essential system data is safely and effectively backed up. Our backup solution includes complete dual tapeless backup protection, including quick incremental backup to a carrier-grade data center and a second backup to a secure on-site hard drive, for added security. We offer a very safe, fully automated remote backup service. You won’t need to worry about the security of your data ever again.

Remote desktop:
A function of Windows that enables remote access to a Windows session from a separate computer and location (XP and later).

Remote login:
An interactive link between your desktop computer and a computer in another location over a network or phone line (remote site).

Remote monitoring:
See: “network monitoring” or click here

Remote support:
See: “help desk” or click here.

The primary colors combined to show the color of pixels on a computer monitor are red, green, and blue. These three hues can be combined in various amounts to produce every color of emitted light.

RJ-45 connector:
A PC to a local area network via an eight-wire connector. Possibly also known as an Ethernet connector.

Programs that start a computer and perform diagnostics are stored in read-only memory, a particular kind of memory. Even when your computer is off, data stored in ROM can only be read and cannot be deleted. The ROM on most personal computers is merely a few thousand bytes. Contrast this with RAM (random access or main memory), which refers to the total amount of memory programs on your computer can access.

A networking device that connects two LANs, routers can filter packets and forward them per predetermined criteria.

Rich Text Format is a sort of document formatting that makes it possible to insert unique elements like fonts and margins inside an ASCII file. When a document needs to be shared with individuals using several types of computers, it might be used (e.g., IBM PC or compatibles and Macintoshes).


The area of the electromagnetic spectrum in the 2GHz to 4GHz frequency range is designated for satellite transmission. S-band is used by a number of MSS providers to operate a portion of their satellite networks. See also the Ka, Ku, and L bands.

S-HTTP (Secure Hypertext Transport Protocol):
This Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) extension, also referred to as HTTPS, offers security services for transaction secrecy, authenticity, and integrity between HTTP servers and clients. S-HTTP is a competitive substitute for the more popular Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) standard for Internet browsers. S-HTTP cannot be used to secure Internet apps that are not browser-based because it was created for usage in browser applications.

SAC (Subscriber Acquisition Cost):
The cost of net subscriber addition to the operator usually includes handset subsidies and sales and marketing expenses.

SAE (System Architecture Evolution):
Framework for the transition of the core network to LTE according to 3GPP. The SAE offers a lower-latency, packet-optimized system that supports a variety of wireless and wired technologies, including UTRAN, Wi-Fi, and WiMAX.

Sales Analytics:
Sales management may better understand where salespeople can improve by using sales analytics to detect, model, comprehend, and predict sales trends and results. The functionality that sales analytic systems offer specifically supports discovery, diagnostic, and predictive exercises that allow the manipulation of parameters, measures, dimensions, or numbers as part of an analytical or planning activity.

RFID tags are unable to provide any environmental information. They can only divulge information that is stored in the tag’s memory. However, one typical use of RFID is to affix the label to a sensor that can store data on the title in its memory. Following that, this is transmitted to other systems using RFID protocols. Although RFID and sensory technologies are connected,

Sales and Operations Execution (S&OE):
The S&OE process is a weekly cycle multistep process that includes at least four parallel financial-alignment process-running subprocesses or phases. A merchandising review, a demand evaluation, an inventory plan, gap reconciliation, and an executive S&OE meeting are some of these subprocesses.

Sales And Operations Planning Systems Of Differentiation:
A software solution that supports a Stage 4 or higher-maturity S&OP process is known as a system of differentiation (SOD). It may achieve this with the assistance of a fundamental SCP system of record and in conjunction with other supply chain planning (SCP) SODs (such as supply chain modeling, multi-enterprise inventory optimization, and demand sensing) (SOR). For S&OP, Gartner identifies five phases of development. Various solutions, such as ERP solutions, SCP solutions, Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, and business intelligence (BI) reports, are commonly used to assist stages 1 through 3. Typically, SOD solutions that emphasize the traits of more sophisticated S&OP procedures are used to support Stages 4 and 5.

Sales Configuration Systems:
These systems are used to set up non-product information and specialized finance plans in addition to setting up ship-to-order, assemble-to-order, and engineer-to-order items.

Sales Enablement:
Knowledge-based sales interactions with clients and prospects are supported and promoted by the activities, systems, processes, and information that go along with them.

Sales To End Users:
New, branded items that were completed and sold or leased for the first time to end users during the relevant year. Products that are sold into a nation or region by manufacturers but are not connected to local networks are not included. In contrast, goods that a producer sells to a distributor in one territory but that distributor then sells to end users in another region are accounted for as sales (“sell through”) in the latter region.

Sales-focused Partner Relationship Management (PRM):
Applications for partner relationship management (PRM) that are sales-focused are made to help businesses better market to, sell to, and serve their end consumers through channel partners. Many of the standard components found in a direct sales solution (opportunity management) are included in this category, but the solutions are set up to accommodate a partner-driven environment. Typically used to manage channel partners, distributors, alliances, or strategic partnerships, these applications consolidate data and transactions, set business rules, and track activity. They frequently include a portal to facilitate bidirectional information flow and communications between partners.

SAM (Software Asset Management):
A method for selecting software and for getting rid of it. It covers methods for locating and getting rid of outdated or rarely used software, grouping software licenses, or switching to new licensing models.

SAM Tools (Systems Administration Management Tools):
A versatile collection of tools and utilities for managing and maintaining applications. The main benefit of these technologies comes from how well they handle changes. An administrator can explain a database or form field change with the use of a well-designed tool, which also guarantees the integrity of all the application components linked to the change and propagates the change to all users who will be impacted. System administrators use SAM tools for central administration and can thus demonstrate a certain level of technical competency, but administrative functionality for managers (such as sales managers, marketing content managers, and call center supervisors) must be constrained by end-user capabilities.

SAN (Storage Area Network):
A SAN is divided into two tiers: The first layer, known as the storage plumbing tier, facilitates communication among network nodes and carries orders and statuses specific to individual devices. This network must have at least one storage node linked to it. In the second tier, known as the “software tier,” value-added services are offered over the first tier by using the software.

SAP Application Services, Worldwide:
The whole life cycle of SAP application services, including project-based implementation and long-term application administration services, are the market’s primary focus (AMS). Assess service providers’ capacity to offer clients all around the world a full range of implementation and management services for the SAP array of products. According to this definition, comprehensive

  • A unique offering that complies with standard service offerings found in the market, as shown by the following criteria: service scope, delivery structure, intellectual property (IP), roles and responsibilities, service metrics and levels, terms and conditions, and pricing model.
  • A collection of unique offerings that are combined to fulfill industry-specific or cross-industry demand and are acknowledged as an integrated offering by customers or analysts.

SAP Selective Test Data Management Tools:
Leaders of SAP applications and SAP Basis operations should consider specialized software tools for automating the routine refresh of their SAP ERP test data in order to lower infrastructure costs and manual workloads in contemporary ERP projects. SAP selective test data management technologies copy SAP test data selectively, although they take different approaches to data selection, scrubbing, and performance enhancement. The users of these tools fall into two categories: (1) Basis operations teams, which need repeated data copy operations to be as automated as feasible, and (2) SAP application data objects, which are used for ad hoc data copying. Additionally, some of the technologies allow Basis operations teams to create “shell systems,” which are exact replicas of a production system’s entirety but devoid of transaction data. This is excellent for testing reasons. 

SAP SuccessFactors Service Providers:
Human capital management (HCM) cloud applications, such as core HR, talent management, and workforce analytics, are offered by SAP SuccessFactors. Third-party service providers that specialize in the adoption and support of SAP SuccessFactors applications offer SAP SuccessFactors services, which are life cycle services. Consulting, implementation, and management are among the services offered in this market. HR leaders, IT managers, and sourcing managers purchase SAP SuccessFactors services to standardize, harmonize, and update talent or HR management systems globally or as the impetus for changing the HR operating model. These customers seek service providers who can quickly and agilely build a cloud-based solution and support it after implementation.

Satellite Broadcasting Operator:
A company whose primary activity is the transmission of TV channels to viewers through satellite equipment.

Satellite Communications:
Relaying communications from one earth station to another or to several earth stations using geostationary orbiting satellites.

Satellite Communications Operator:
A company that uses a satellite network to offer telecom services.

Satellite Computer:
A programmable device that frees a primary processor from laborious tasks like editing, compiling, and managing input/output devices.

Satellite Dish:
Satellite signals are transmitted and received using a parabolic microwave antenna. On the downlink, the dish gathers data or video signals from orbiting satellites and concentrates them such that a feed horn may collect and transfer the signal to a satellite receiver, or IRD, where it will be amplified. The word refers to the complete antenna subsystem, including the feed horn and antenna construction, and is derived from the form of the reflector surface.

Satellite Navigation Solutions:
The Global Positioning System (GPS) and other national and international satellite programs (including Glonass and Galileo) constitute the foundation for satellite navigation systems, which are used in both consumer and commercial markets. The use of a cellular tower or Wi-Fi-enabled triangulation can be added to satellite navigation systems, which are integrated into vehicles, portable units (personal navigation devices, or PNDs), or applications available on mobile phones (assisted GPS). The Global Positioning System (GPS) and other national and international satellite programs (including Glonass and Galileo) constitute the foundation for satellite navigation systems, which are used in both consumer and commercial markets. The use of a cellular tower or Wi-Fi-enabled triangulation can be added to satellite navigation systems, which are integrated into vehicles, portable units (personal navigation devices, or PNDs), or applications available on mobile phones (assisted GPS).

Satellite Navigation Systems:
The Global Positioning System (GPS) and other national and international satellite programs (including Glonass and Galileo) constitute the foundation for satellite navigation systems, which are used in both consumer and commercial markets. A cellular tower or Wi-Fi-enabled triangulation system may be added to satellite navigation systems, which are integrated into vehicles, portable units (personal navigation devices, or PNDs), or applications available on mobile phones (assisted GPS).

Satellite Phone (satphone):
The utilization of satellite infrastructure by a handheld device to provide wireless voice and SMS communications eliminates the need for terrestrial infrastructure. Satphones use satellites that can be orbiting or stationary and can be handheld, fixed, or portable. The user needs to be in the service provider’s coverage region and have a line of sight to a satellite. Two-way talk, low-speed data, SMS, and fax are common services.

SAX (Simple API for XML):
An open-source replacement for Document Object Model (DOM) that stipulates an event-oriented interface for Java programs.

SBM (Skills-based Management):
A program that identifies the skills that an organization currently has, the skills it will require in the future, the time frame in which it will require those skills, the strategic value the organization will place on those skills, and the degree to which the competencies of the information technology (IT) staff align with the value of the strategically important skills. It serves as a general guide for creating competency improvement programs and other strategies to close any skill gaps.

SC-FDMA (Single-carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access):
An OFDMA-like multiplexing approach minimizes the processing and battery needs of mobile devices by requiring that the subcarriers assigned to each user be contiguous. also, see OFDMA

SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition):
A system used in manufacturing to provide regulatory or machine control over a process area or work cell, as well as to collect measurements of process variables and machine statuses.

The capacity of a system to adapt its performance and cost to changes in application and system processing demands is known as scalability. Examples include a physical system’s ability to handle more users, a database’s ability to handle more queries, or an operating system’s ability to function on various types of hardware. When assessing hardware and software, businesses that are expanding quickly should pay special attention to scalability. 

A device that uses raster scanning and quantization to convert a two-dimensional item, such as a business document, into a stream of bits.

A factor in the optical fiber transmission of light wave signal loss. Diffusion of a light beam brought on by minute fluctuations in the transmission medium’s material density.

SCCM (Software Change and Configuration Management):
Software change and configuration management (SCCM — mainframe and distributed) tools put into practice a set of practices used to control, track, and stabilize the versions and configurations of a collection of software items. These practices may also include development change management, defect tracking, change automation, development release management, integrated test management, integrated build management, and other related processes.

SCIV (Supply Chain Inventory Visibility):
Applications that help businesses track and manage events along the supply chain so they may better plan their activities and anticipate issues. SCIV systems give businesses the ability to submit plans and get notifications when events don’t go as planned, as well as track and trace inventory globally down to the line-item level. Real-time visibility into orders and shipments provides businesses with accurate forecasts of when their products will arrive. Develop competence and align strategy to speed up digital supply chains.

SCM (Software Configuration Management):
Additionally referred to as “software change management,” Version control, security administration of software assets, software promotion, quality reviews, and software distribution are all part of the software lifecycle management (SCM) methodology.

Scope, Track, Rank, Evaluate, Evangelize, and Transfer (STREET):
Best practices for technology planning and adoption are represented by the acronym STREET, which stands for scope, track, rank, evaluate, evangelize, and transfer. STREET is excellent for company executives, innovators, or other people involved in the adoption of innovation to utilize as a checklist of essential tasks or for a developing technology group to use or adapt in creating its own internal process.

SCPC (Single Channel Per Carrier):
A form of transmission where a physical channel is dedicated for the duration of the transmission to just one carrier.

SCR (Sustainable Cell Rate):
A transmission setup where a physical channel is completely dedicated to one carrier for the duration of the broadcast.

A coding technique used on a digital channel to generate what appears to be a random bit sequence. The channel is decoded using a matching device, proving that the coding is reversible.

Screen Popping:
Displaying real-time client data on a call center agent’s screen.

Screen Sharing:
Similar to application sharing, but with limited simultaneous document updates.

The use of a barrier to stop electric, magnetic, or electromagnetic fields from leaving or entering a closed space. Also known as shielding.

Scriptless Testing:
With the use of scriptless testing tools, the amount of scripting required to create tests using a model-, object-, data-, or keyword-driven approaches can be reduced or even completely eliminated. The objective is to lower maintenance costs and enable corporate user testing. Although performance-testing products are more common, functional automation-focused products still predominate.

By region, SDH/SONET technology varies. The only market for SONET is North America. Outside of North America, SDH is offered in two varieties: SDH (Japan), which is only available in Japan, and SDH (ETSI), which is available everywhere else. Ring and mesh topologies are supported by SDH/SONET, and various protection programs are required to protect circuits using automatic protection switching (APS).

Standardized bit rates are available for SDH/SONET; SDH circuits are known as STM-x connections (where x = 1, 4, 16, 64, and 256), and SONET circuits are known as OC-n connections (where n = 3, 12, 48, 192, or 768) connections. The standard bit rates are as follows:

  • STM-1/OC-3 (155 Mbps).
  • STM-4/OC-12 (622 Mbps).
  • STM-16/OC-48 (2.5 Gbps).
  • STM-64/OC-192 (10 Gbps).
  • STM-256/OC-768 (40 Gbps).

The SDH/SONET standards were designed from the start as a strict hierarchy optimized for circuit-based speech traffic. The SDH/SONET standards have been updated to enable more flexible traffic handling, particularly with regard to data services in general and Ethernet services in particular, as the need to support data services has become more apparent. The Generic Framing Procedure (GFP) and LCAS, as well as support for greater control plane capability as specified in the standards for Automatic Switched Transport Networks (ASTN)/Automatic Switched Optical Networks, have all been added to the standards (ASON).

In order to offer add/drop functionality, suppliers have also incorporated cross-connect functionality to SDH/SONET equipment. Additionally, in the optical transport business, convergence between SDH/SONET and WDM solutions has become standard.

SDK (Software Development Kit):
A collection of software development tools for creating programs, typically linked to particular environments (e.g., the Windows SDK).

SDMA (Spatial Division Multiple Access):
Advanced multiple antenna technology that extends the bandwidth, range, and spectral efficiency of wireless devices that are in motion. Because they are unaware of the location of the mobile device, conventional cellular base stations broadcast power in all directions. This wastes power, interferes with nearby cells and makes it more difficult to separate weaker incoming signals from the noise and interference. The radiation pattern of the base station can be changed to maximize both transmission and reception for each user device by employing smart antenna technology to track the spatial location of mobile devices. A beam or a spot of RF power can be successfully directed to or away from each user by the base station by quickly altering the phase of signals from several antennas. One antenna is all that is needed at the client device, as opposed to MIMO, potentially saving money on customer-premises equipment (CPE). The proprietary wireless broadband systems that utilize SDMA techniques are viable candidates for mobile WiMAX and LTE. Also, see smart antenna.

SDSL (Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line):
A digital subscriber line (DSL) technology that transmits data at a rate of 1.5 megabits per second in one direction or 768 kilobits per second in both directions over an 8,000-foot distance using voice-grade telephone lines.

Search Engine:
A sizable, searchable database of Web pages kept on a centralized server with Internet access and regularly updated by web crawlers or spiders. AltaVista and Yahoo are two examples.

Search-based Data Discovery Tools:
Utilizing search terms, users of search-based data discovery tools can create and improve views and analyses of both structured and unstructured data. They share three characteristics with visualization-based data discovery tools: (1) a proprietary data structure to store and model data gathered from various sources, which reduces reliance on predefined business intelligence (BI) metadata; (2) an integrated performance layer using RAM or indexing, which reduces the need for aggregates, summaries, and pre-calculations; and (3) an intuitive interface, which enables users to explore data without much training. But they also differ at the user interface level, with search-based data discovery tools leveraging text search input and results to direct users to the information they 

Secondary Channel:
A four-wire circuit that has a low-speed channel established for the transmission of control or diagnostic information. On the circuit’s major, high-speed channels, user data is transmitted.

Secondary Station:
A terminal device that has been chosen to function under the direction of another terminal device on a communications line.

Secondhand Market:
Mobile devices that have been owned or used before being sold or given away to other users, who often get a fresh network connection. Before being sold in foreign nations or given to new owners in their original state, used devices are occasionally routinely repaired. Although the secondhand market is generally tiny, it plays a key role in price-sensitive developing economies like China, where marginal users seek out the most affordable, entry-level gadget.

Secret Key:
The secret-key cryptography’s symmetric key. Although shared between parties who are in communication, it is not completely private. also public-key, private-key, and secret-key cryptography.

Secret-key Cryptography:
The sole key required to encrypt and decrypt communications in this cryptography technique (also known as symmetric-key cryptography) is a shared secret between the communicating parties. The main drawback of this approach is that the secret key must be transmitted via a device external to the communication channel that carries the encrypted text. Furthermore, digital signatures are not supported by secret-key systems. Public-key cryptography addresses these drawbacks (see separate entry).

Secure Web Gateway:
Secure Web gateway solutions guard against infection and uphold corporate standards on browsing PCs. In order to enforce corporate and regulatory policy compliance, a secure Web gateway filters undesired software/malware from user-initiated Web/Internet traffic. At the very least, these gateways must have URL filtering, malicious-code identification and filtering, and application controls for well-known Web-based programs like Skype and instant messaging (IM). Data leak prevention is also increasingly being included natively or seamlessly.

An organization’s use of people, policies, procedures and technologies to secure its physical and digital assets is known as security. Business executives define the levels of security that are optimal, balancing the number of resources needed with usability, manageability, and risk mitigation.

Security Awareness Computer-based Training:
The demand for security education and training that is end-user-focused is expanding quickly. The market for these products is being driven by security and risk management. Leaders need to influence people’s security behaviors, including those of employees, citizens, and consumers. An extensive security education and behavior management program’s core element is interactive computer-based training (CBT). Through computing devices like laptops, tablets, cellphones, and Internet of Things (IoT) gadgets, CBT offers a learning experience. There are ready-to-use, interactive software modules available from vendors for CBT on security awareness. Client-managed learning management systems (LMSs) and the vendors’ support for the Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) standard make these modules accessible as web-based services or on-premise deployments.

Security Governance:
A method called security governance is used to manage the cybersecurity teams in charge of reducing business risks. Leaders in security governance make the choices that enable risks to be given a higher priority, allowing security efforts to be concentrated on business needs rather than their own. They also control the interactions between resolving internal and external threats, managing compliance, and minimizing recognized business risks.

Security Indicators:
Security indicators are metrics-based values that describe how an activity, process, or control behaves over a given period of time. They are derived by comparing logically linked features. These critical indicators are developed from predetermined criteria and may be indicative of an organization’s general security posture. Security guidelines, as outlined in policies and standards, serve as a reference for the indicators.

Security Information And Event Management:
The security and information event management (SIEM) market is defined by Gartner based on the customer’s need to collect, store, investigate, and report on log data for incident response, forensics, and regulatory compliance, as well as to analyze event data in real-time for the early detection of targeted attacks and data breaches. Event data generated by security tools, network infrastructure, systems, and applications are compiled by SIEM technology. Although network telemetry and log data are the main data sources, SIEM systems may also process other types of data. Contextual data on users, assets, threats, and vulnerabilities are coupled with event data. In order to examine events, data, and contextual information from various sources for particular reasons, such as network security event monitoring, user activity monitoring, and compliance reporting, the data may be normalized. The system offers long-range analytics for historical study as well as real-time event analysis for security monitoring.

Security Information and Event Management (SIEM):
The data can be normalized to enable the analysis of events, data, and contextual information from various sources for particular objectives such as network security event monitoring, user activity monitoring, and compliance reporting. The technology offers query, long-range analytics, and real-time event analysis for security monitoring and historical analysis.

Security Information And Event Management Software:
Security information and event management (SIEM) technology enable threat detection, compliance, and security incident management by gathering and analyzing security events, as well as a wide range of other event and contextual data sources, in both near real-time and the past. A wide range of log event collecting and administration, the capacity to analyze log events and other data from a variety of sources, and operational capabilities make up the basic competencies (such as incident management, dashboards, and reporting).

Security Metrics:
Through the gathering, analysis, and reporting of pertinent data, security metrics are quantitative benchmarks used to comprehend the status of systems and services. Security objectives serve as the foundation for security metrics, which are used to guide decisions on how to increase the security of all parts engaged in providing services and processing data.

Security Orchestration, Automation, and Response (SOAR):
Technologies that allow businesses to gather inputs watched over by the security operations team are referred to as SOAR. For instance, notifications from the SIEM system and other security technologies can assist define, prioritize, and drive standardized incident response operations. These technologies enable incident analysis and triage to be carried out by combining human and machine power. An organization can define incident analysis and response processes using SOAR technologies and digital workflows.

All manufacturing processes are numbered according to Japanese management practice.

Selective Sourcing:
According to Gartner, selective sourcing occurs when an internal IT organization decouples or divides the scope of business or IT activities with the intention of separately or specifically sourcing each component. Finding the greatest risk-reward ratio for each unique scope of work is the primary business motivation. Most frequently, this is done to encourage intense competition in an effort to produce the best performance at the most affordable price. The internal IT organization is responsible for overall program management, risk management, and overall legal compliance for the complete spectrum of services across all separate components.

The final octet of an address in asynchronous transfer mode (ATM).

Self-describing Messages:
Communication that includes data and the metadata that explains its structure and intent (i.e., its syntax and semantics). Extensible Markup Language (XML), for instance, is a self-descriptive message format made up of tag/value pairs.

Self-relocating Program:
A set of instructions with the ability to assign memory blocks as needed.

Self-service Analytics:
Self-Service Analytics is a type of business intelligence (BI) where line-of-business workers are empowered and encouraged to run their own queries and produce their own reports with just minimal IT support. Self-service analytics is frequently defined by basic analytic capabilities in easy-to-use BI tools, as well as an underlying data model that has been reduced or downsized for clear understanding and simple data access.

Self-service Business Intelligence:
End users building and implementing their own reports and analyses within a portfolio of approved and supported tools constitutes self-service business intelligence in this context.

Self-test And Fault Isolation:
Most systems have a processor-check feature that enables the controlling computer to test both the system as a whole and itself. If a problem is discovered, an alert light will illuminate, and if one is available, a message will be sent via the system printer teletype. Additionally, because the computer can quickly identify malfunctioning equipment, this feature speeds up service.

Catalogs, transaction processors, payment processors, and supply chain management techniques and technologies are just a few of the processes used by businesses to sell their goods.

Semantic Data Model:
A system of data organization that takes into account the links between the data elements and their fundamental meaning. Because of this design, it is simpler to create application programs and keep updated data consistent.

Semantic Nets:
A kind of knowledge representation that makes use of connections and nodes to express events or items (representing relationships between those objects or events).

Semi-mobile Wireless:
Includes client device compatibility for walking-speed roaming between base station coverage zones. The client’s mobile device must, at the very least, be transportable to secondary fixed locations without connectivity while in motion. This category includes the terms “nomadic” and “portable,” which are used by the WiMAX Forum. When employed by vendors, the terms “nomadic,” “portable,” and “mobile” frequently have different meanings. Mobile and stationary wireless are also covered.

Semiconductor is a solid material that, either as a result of the presence of impurity or as a result of temperature changes, exhibits conductivity that lies between that of an insulator and that of most metals. Most electronic circuits require semiconductor devices, particularly silicon, as key elements.

In lean enterprises, the term “mentor” is used to designate a skilled lean practitioner who takes on a kohai.

Sensei (also Lean Sensei):
A renowned lean methodologies instructor. Comparable in experience to a Black Belt or Master Black Belt in the Six Sigma approach, but with a stronger emphasis on teaching and facilitation than on actual practice.

Sensor and RFID-based Inventory and Asset Management Business Process Application Software:
The primary means through which RFID starts to be justified will be through innovative business structures and procedures. However, there aren’t many programs available to businesses today to manage these operations. For instance, real-time inventory management in a retail setting is practically unheard of right now. Therefore businesses will require completely new programs to handle it. The vendors offering various solutions are dispersed, and it is likely that a different market will develop for each offering.

Sensor and RFID-based Inventory and Asset Management Infrastructure Software:
In order to manage RFID hardware and data, businesses need software and development methodologies. Installing middleware that functions as an integration broker between RFID scanners and business applications that need to receive the data is now the most common method.

Serial Dot Matrix:
A character image is produced by an output device by mechanically pressing individual dots into the substrate in a certain pattern. They consist of the following:

  • 9-pin — Devices with 9-wire print heads
  • 18-pin — Devices with 18-wire print heads
  • 24-pin — Devices with 24-wire print heads

 Serial Inkjet:
An output device that uses a variety of orifices or nozzles to emit ink to create the desired image. The array of nozzles moves around the page while printing serially or one character at a time. The following device types fall under this category:

  • Piezoelectric inkjet print heads: These print heads compress the ink and force it out of the nozzle by electrically activating a specific crystalline or ceramic component.
  • Thermal inkjet: Vapor bubbles are produced by heat and expelled onto a surface in the form of droplets that can be utilized to create text or graphics. The benefits of thermal inkjet include its very reliable system and compact, tightly regulated droplets. Numerous serial and line inkjets employ thermal inkjet print heads. Thermal inkjet printing, which was initially created for desktop printers, has expanded to specialized uses such as package coding, wide-format printing, and direct-mail addressing.

Serial Interface:
A connection that sends data bits at a time rather than entire characters at once. More affordable and slower than a parallel interface.

Serial Transmission:
A technique that sends a character’s bits one by one on a single transmission channel. Contemplate parallel transmission.

Server Appliance:
A particular class of computing equipment that generates modifies, or delivers data to other network-connected computing devices. For the generation, manipulation, or provision of information, server appliances use an application context as opposed to storage appliances.

Server Virtualization Infrastructure:
The hypervisor, virtual machines, and virtual machine monitors make up the server virtualization infrastructure (VMMs). The hypervisor is essential for “virtualizing” a server. A hypervisor is a layer of software that runs directly on hardware and enables the definition of fixed partitions with predefined priorities for accessing hardware resources. Depending on the implementation, the term “software” can refer to preloaded software that runs in a protected area or microcode/firmware. Because they prioritize hardware resources but do not share them equally, these divisions are incomplete virtual machines. A VMM is typically used to create a hypervisor in order to provide flexible configuration. The VMM virtualizes all of the hardware required to operate VMs. Currently, the majority of items are marketed as hypervisors. 

Server Virtualization Management:
Server virtualization management tools include operations management and administration management tools, as well as management tools included in the hypervisor purchase. There are two categories of delivery vehicles that use server virtualization management technology. The first is integrated into the infrastructure itself, in this case as a component of the hypervisor package (this is sometimes referred to as “virtual infrastructure” by companies like VMware). Because infrastructure components give technology vendors a second source of income and a foundation for the competitive differentiation of their core technologies, Gartner is noticing more manageability incorporated into them. Aside from established companies with a virtualization-focused heritage, third-party independent software providers are another source for management technologies. On top of the management tools already included in their virtualization systems, hypervisor providers now offer extra management tools in areas like administrative consoles, capacity planning, and process and workflow automation.

Server-Based Computing (SBC):
Using specialized software agents or web browser technologies, server-based computing (SBC) allows Windows applications and/or desktops to be remotely executed on a shared server OS and delivered to various device types, including tablets. It is also referred to as presentation virtualization, terminal services, and remote desktop services.

Serverless Printing:
Peer-to-peer printing over the Internet Protocol is known as serverless printing. As a result, a dedicated print server that controls print queues and distributes printer drivers can be removed.

Service Bureau:
A business that charges a client to process different kinds of data. Call-costing reports and station message detail reporting (SMDR) are frequently given.

Service Catalog:
The parameters and functionalities of a service are defined by templates in a service catalog (such as bandwidth and speed). The service catalog describes product features in more technical language than the product catalog does.

Service Desk:
A service desk is a help desk that has the tools necessary to handle service requests and troubleshooting inquiries. Instead of being a “pass-through,” it enables the customer service agent or end user to quickly diagnose, resolve, and fix technical support issues.

Service Inventory:
Includes a central database with network and IT information for specific services. Each service is a collection of qualities and features, including pricing, quality, speed, and customizability. The database of service levels connects the service data to specific clients.

Service Levels:
The objectives of each individual business process in relation to the broader goals of the business unit.

Service Mesh:
Distributed middleware, particularly for microservices, known as a service mesh, optimizes communications between application services.

Service Provider Routers And Switches:
A type of network controller known as a router chooses the most efficient path for voice and data transmissions between a transmitter (also known as a sender) and a receiver. They are primarily operated by software, and it is possible to program them to offer the cheapest, fastest, or least congested routes. In the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)/International Organization for Standardization (ISO) paradigm, Layer 3 is where routers work. Only service provider routers are covered by this definition.

Service-centric Cloud Erp Solutions:
A service-centric ERP suite, according to Gartner, includes the following:

Project planning and resourcing, project management, and project accounting and billing are all included in the financials, human capital management, and indirect procurement (administrative ERP) PSA.

Apps or modules with a focus on a particular industry, such as those for grant management in public and higher education sectors.

For at least one service-centric industry, a service-centric ERP suite must offer financial management capability from administrative ERP, either PSA or industry-specific modules, or both. The provider may opportunistically offer more administrative ERP features (such as HCM and indirect procurement). 

Service-Level Agreement (SLA):
A service-level agreement (SLA), which outlines the products or services to be supplied, the single point of contact for end-user issues, and the metrics by which the process’ efficacy is reviewed and approved, establishes expectations between the service provider and the client.

Service-oriented Architecture (SOA):
IT can better satisfy business demands with the support of the design philosophy and discipline known as service-oriented architecture (SOA). Some businesses use SOA to great effect, resulting in quicker time to market, cheaper costs, improved application consistency, and higher agility. Redundancy is decreased, while usability, maintainability, and value are all increased via SOA. This results in modular, interoperable systems that are simpler to use and manage. Systems created with SOA are quicker and simpler, increasing agility and lowering the total cost of ownership (TCO).

Serving Area:

  1. The area close to a broadcasting station where the signal intensity is equal to or greater than a specified minimum.
  2. A telephone exchange’s service area, which is often similar to the local access and transport region (LATA) 

A type of server-based Java that works with a Web server and provides an alternative to communicating with Web server processes via the Common Gateway Interface (CGI) and server application programming interfaces (APIs). Furthermore, because servlets are supported by the majority of popular Web servers, they are not dependent on a specific kind of Web server.

Session Border Controllers:
The three main edges that need to be introduced by SBCs are security, service assurance, and law enforcement. SBCs connect IP networks (enterprise to service provider). By merging session signaling and media control, SBCs at the edge of the service provider’s network complement established routers by performing the necessary control operations. SBCs function as MGCP proxy/network-address translations (NATs), H.323 back-to-back gateways, or SIP back-to-back user agents. All media streams entering and departing the provider’s network have them as both the source and the destination.

Startup vendors have essentially controlled the SBC market, but other equipment suppliers have adopted two strategies: either they have partnered with the SBC suppliers, or they have integrated SBC capabilities into some of their already-existing solutions, such as routers. Gartner acknowledges that certain embedded systems include SBC functionality but only include stand-alone solutions in their tally. SBCs are included in routing and switching platforms by vendors like Cisco and Sonus Networks.

Session Initiation Protocol (SIP):
The Internet Engineering Task Force has standardized the communication protocol known as Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) (IETF). No matter the media content, it is the first real-time communication protocol to support multiuser sessions. SIP supports a new generation of IP-based fixed and mobile networks, as well as Internet-based communication services. SIP allows for the initiation and management of communications, and its primary channels include audio, video, and instant messaging (IM).

Seven Wastes:
A set of seven activities that don’t provide value that was first described by Toyota: Overproducing means creating goods before a legitimate order has been received; unnecessary waiting increases cycle time, which decreases agility; unnecessary transportation involves moving materials between sites without a need to; overprocessing means using longer or more complex procedures than necessary; unnecessary inventory means a buildup of work-in-process or raw materials; unnecessary movement indicates an inefficient workplace, and unnecessary movement adds extra work. and too many flaws, which include subpar process quality and excessive rework. Asset underutilization or other underutilization of resources was included as an eighth waste by Gartner and others on this list. The abbreviation “DOWNTIME,” which stands for “Defects, Overproduction, Waiting, Nonutilized resources, Transportation, Inventory, Motion, and Excessive processing,” is frequently used to refer to the eight wastes.

SFA (Sales Force Automation):
The automation of the sales process through technology. The following technologies can be applied to sales automation:

  • Laptop computers
  • Personal digital assistants
  • Contact databases
  • Interactive selling systems

SFA (Sales Force Automation) — Direct Sales (Field Sales/Inside Sales):
The functionality for sales execution and sales operations is also included in direct sales software, which expands on the technology, functionality, and value of order management systems. The direct B2 B sales organization is a classic sales channel made up of internal sales staff that are dedicated to selling goods and services directly to a client, customer, and prospect bases while they are still working for the provider company. Direct sales resources might be outside salespeople who visit consumers in person or inside salespeople who make phone sales from a desk environment.

SFC (Shop Floor Control):
A set of computer programs and/or controllers that are used to dispatch, schedule, and monitor the progress of work orders through the manufacturing process using predetermined routes. SFCs are commonly used in inventory assessments and material planning to calculate work in process based on a percentage of completion for each order and operation.

SFDR (Software Failure Detection and Recovery):
In order to provide operating-system or application data recovery techniques, the concept of a transaction, including atomicity (either all changes take effect or none do), should be supported.

SFF-LR (Small-form-factor, Legacy-reduced):
It should be able to support the idea of a transaction, including atomicity (either all changes take effect or none do), to allow the implementation of operating-system or application data recovery procedures.

SFM (Store-and-Forward Manager):
A component that manages the coordination of multistep processes, asynchronous messaging for data consistency, and inter-application communication.

SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node):
The SGSN, which is a component of the GPRS infrastructure, offers switching capabilities, security, and authentication for GPRS users via the HLR. The GGSN, HLR, and PCU are the SGSN’s three main interfaces.

Shadow It:
IT hardware, software, and services that are not owned or controlled by IT organizations are referred to as “shadow IT.”

Shadow/mirror Databases:
A system-level feature that enables duplicating some databases to a different disk or disk set via shadowing or mirroring. The goal is to reduce the amount of space needed for backup data while yet ensuring that crucial operations may continue in the event that a disk containing associated databases is lost.

Shared Services Or Shared Services Center:
A dedicated unit (including people, procedures, and technologies) that is organized as a centralized point of service and is focused on certain business operations is referred to as a shared services center (SSC). Multiple business units within the firm are supported by IT and IT services for these roles. Shared services may involve various corporate operations and IT procedures and may originate from numerous separate physical locations. The enterprise is where an SSC’s definition, structure, and scope are established. Businesses occasionally hire outside consultants to advise on different aspects of the design, structure, location alternatives, and implementation options. Execution and long-term delivery may be handled by service providers, internal enterprise staff, or a combination of both. As a result, the sourcing strategy for delivery has no bearing on how shared services are defined.

Shielded Pair:
A cable that has a pair of conductors that are shielded from interference by a metallic foil wrap.

An operating system or program that has had software changed to alter the typical data flow and provide new features. Third-party companies frequently use this technology to offer improved networking functionality.

The additional hardware needed to support an increase in traffic or coverage is included in Gartner’s figures for mobile network infrastructure. Installations for the current year

are subtracted from installations for the following year to determine shipments.

Multiskilled workers and an optimized work center architecture are key components of continuous worker optimization in a work center.

Short Message Service (SMS):
The GSM standard’s short message service (SMS) feature allows mobile devices to send, receive, and display messages with up to 160 characters in the Roman text and a variety of non-Roman character sets. If the subscriber device is dormant, messages are retained in the network and relayed until it becomes active. In some fixed networks and CDMA networks, SMS is now more widely accessible.


  1. A label applied to packaged software programs (from the shrink-wrapped packaging typical of such products).
  2. Originally used to refer to an unsigned software license agreement that is deemed accepted when the user removes the program medium, such as a CD or floppy disk, from its packaging and breaks the shrink-wrapped seal or opens the enclosed sealed envelope. The phrase is now used to describe software license agreements that are electronically accepted. Look up click-wrapped.

SI (System Integrator):
An organization that focuses on setting up, organizing, scheduling, coordinating, testing, improving, and occasionally sustaining a computing operation. SIs work to organize dispersed suppliers.

A frequency range where the frequencies created by the modulation process fall, either on the upper or lower side of the carrier frequency.

Signal-to-Noise Ratio:
The ratio between the strength of the transmitting signal and the noise that is there and attempting to tamper with that signal is a measure of the wireless signal’s quality.

Signaling Gateways/IP-STPs:
They are an NGN component that makes it possible to traverse a policy boundary or change protocols. Products implementing SIP, Session Initiation Protocol for Telephony (SIP-T), Parlay, Electronic Numbering (ENUM), and XML are among the NGN IP-STP products. SGs employ the SIGTRAN and SS7 protocols.

Any mark or symbol recognized by both parties to indicate the purpose, endorsement, or ownership of a document. For instance, in e-business, the “from” line on an email, a mouse click to agree to the terms, an email closure, a biometric, and many sorts of electronic signatures are all accepted as signatures. Certain laws need a written signature to be recognized as valid. Electronic signatures now have the same legal standing as written signatures thanks to new laws.

Signature Verification:
A biometric method that verifies identity using the features of a person’s signature, such as pressure, pen lifts, speed, and direction of strokes. In document authentication systems that have historically employed written signatures, signatures are popular despite being less accurate than some other biometrics (such as fingerprints and iris). The popularity of pen-based devices (like the PalmPilot) that can also be used as a tablet for signature entry could contribute to some growth.

Silicon Anode Batteries:
The development of the widely used lithium-ion (Li-Ion) battery is the silicon anode battery. Lithium was employed as the anode material in Li-Ion batteries of earlier generations. After several publicly publicized instances of overheating and explosion, this was changed to carbon/graphite. The usage of silicon anodes with silicon nanotubes or a similar coating technique in next-generation Li-Ion batteries is likely. Longer battery life and much-increased energy storage will result from this.

SIM Card (Subscriber Identity Module) Card:
Mobile gadget with a programmable smart card that grants network access. It includes details of the specialized services the user has chosen to utilize as well as codes (such as the IMSI) to identify a subscriber to a digital mobile service. A SIM card can be installed inside the mobile device, or it can be a removable plastic card with memory and a processor chip inserted in it.

SIM Toolkit (SIM Application Toolkit):
ETSI standard that enables the preprogramming of additional data and functionality onto the SIM card to create a customized menu and user experience on the phone. This makes it easier for customers to access services offered by network operators and service providers, like financial institutions and entertainment companies.

SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data):
Parallel computer architecture is characterized by instructions that can immediately start a large number (of data operations on various data in parallel). In this group are vector processors.

SIMM (Single In-line Memory Module):
A compact printed circuit board that attaches to a computer’s socket and expands the system’s random-access memory (RAM).

Referring to the ability to send information exclusively in one direction. See the complete duplex and half duplex.

Simplex Circuit:
A circuit that only allows signals to travel in a certain direction. is also referred to as a single duplex.

The process of studying constraint effects using a computer or mathematical model of a physical system.

Simulation Routines:

Various procedures simulate potential future options for supply chain operations design utilizing historical data. These can then be prioritized or strategically focused for use in upcoming operations.

Single Sign-on (SSO):
With single sign-on (SSO), users can authenticate just once and then receive subsequent, automatic authentications while accessing numerous target systems. It simply acts as a user surrogate between client workstations and target systems, eliminating the need to separately authenticate and sign on to various applications and systems. Target applications and systems continue to keep their own credential stores and show client devices sign-on prompts. SSO reacts to the prompts in the background and converts the credentials to a single login/password combination. SSO is frequently used in federated, web, and corporate models.

Single-image Mode:
A method of operation where several central processing units (CPUs) physically located within a complex conceptually appear to be operating as a single system.

Single-instance ERP:
According to Gartner, postmodern ERP is a technology strategy that automates and links administrative and operational business capabilities (such as finance, HR, purchasing, manufacturing, and distribution) with the right levels of integration to strike a balance between the advantages of vendor-delivered integration and business flexibility and agility. Product-focused businesses, which often have the greatest ERP functional footprint, were the target audience when the original ERP systems were created. Manufacturing and distribution firms are frequent examples of product-centric businesses.

Single-mode Fiber:
A fiber that permits the propagation of a single light route and has a tiny core diameter

Single-pass Device:
A color page printer runs the paper through an image engine with four or more stations once. As the paper consecutively passes through each color station, a full-color image is created.

The terminal connection on a communications channel receives overflow transmissions.

SITE (Strategy, Iteration, Testing, Enablement):
Departments of information systems (IS) have a history of developing applications using a design process that includes planning, prototyping, testing, and development, leading to justifiable design judgments. By establishing a structured framework in which both business unit (BU) management and IS workers see clearly defined duties, SITE, a Gartner concept, strives to build on this long-standing IS department practice. Staffing, success factors, ROI requirements, request for proposals (RFPs), interface design, and visual design are thus addressed in a setting where choices are not made at random. Following the SITE principles result in a project plan that is relevant to various audiences, whether the final implementation is done internally or externally.

Six Sigma:
A group of methods known as Six Sigma is used to create, enhance, and deliver high-quality business processes and results. The statistical term level 6 standard deviation (6 sigma deviation) from the process norm, which is typically interpreted to imply 3.4 failures per million opportunities, gave rise to the term. To reduce and regulate variability, as well as to eliminate flaws, standard process stages are adhered to. Common process steps are frequently DMADV while designing a new process (i.e., Define needs, Measure critical to quality items, Analyse processes, Design product or service, and Verify need alignment). Common process phases are frequently DMAIC for process improvement (i.e., Define opportunity, Measure performance, Analyze opportunity, Improve performance, and Control performance).

Skill Mining:
A knowledge management (KM) feature that uses historical behavior analysis to automatically identify the knowledge workers’ competencies. This behavior may be implicit (such as checking for repeating themes in the documents the employee has created) or explicit (such as the employee’s past willingness and aptitude to respond to a query). Users can find out who in their organization has the knowledge to deal with particular issues or difficulties by using skill mining.

The observable manual talents needed to complete a job or task are known as skills. They specify “what” is done during a job.

Skinless Servers:
In order to optimize server density potential and use less material and electricity, skinless servers are designed with fewer racks, chassis, and, in some cases, even motherboard components. The term “skinless” refers to configurations that don’t cover individual servers with external sheet metal and make use of the rack frame’s common cooling and power supplies.

Skinput (Bioacoustic Sensing):
A new input method called Skinput, based on bioacoustic sensor technology enables the use of the skin as a finger input surface. A bioacoustic sensor device can record the acoustic waves produced when a finger taps against the skin. The software detects, analyzes, and categorizes the diverse acoustic locations of signals caused by variations in bone density, size, and the various filtering effects produced by soft tissues and joints. Different bodily parts can be connected to interactive capabilities.

SKU (Stock-Keeping Unit):
A special identifying code that identifies a product at the recognizable inventory level; in retail applications, the SKU might indicate the style, size, and color of the product. The serial number or unique identification level would be a more in-depth level.

SLED (Single Large Expensive Disk):
Standard disk drive. That is a traditional large-system disk system, which costs substantially more to produce and has, on average, approximately twice the diameter of a redundant array of independent disk (RAID) system.

SLM (Service-Level Management):
The continual process of employing service-level agreements (SLAs) to maintain high quality in service supply and to guarantee that performance and service-level objectives (SLOs) satisfy the shifting needs of the recipient’s business. Look up SLA and SLO.

SLM (Software License Management):
A system for methodically ensuring adherence to the terms of system vendor and independent software vendor (ISV) software licenses, 

SLO (Service-Level Objective):
SLOs are the goals that must be accomplished under service-level agreements (SLAs) for each service activity, function, and process to give service recipients the best chance of success (see SLA).

SMA (Service Management Agreement):
A device for controlling, tracking, and showcasing how much IT contributes to the business.

Small and Midsize Business (SMB):
A small and midsize business (SMB) is a business that, due to its size, has different IT requirements — and often faces different IT challenges — than do large enterprises and whose IT resources (usually budget and staff) are often highly constrained.

For the purposes of its research, Gartner defines SMBs by the number of employees and annual revenue they have. The attribute used most often is the number of employees; small businesses are usually defined as organizations with fewer than 100 employees; midsize enterprises are those organizations with 100 to 999 employees.

Annual revenue is the second most common factor used to describe the SMB market. Small businesses are typically defined as companies with annual revenues of less than $50 million, while midsize businesses are defined as companies with annual revenues of more than $50 million but less than $1 billion.

Smart Antenna:
These often referred to as adaptive antennas, combine an array of antennas with clever signal processing algorithms to track the location of a mobile client device by employing methods such as the direction of a signal’s arrival. Beam-forming vectors are then calculated using the position or angular direction to concentrate more of the antenna beam’s power on the mobile target. Cellular mobile phone systems and upcoming wireless broadband standards like 802.16e-2005 (WiMAX) and 802.11n both include smart antennas (MIMO). Also, see SDMA.

Smart Card:
A smart card is a plastic card with either only a memory chip or a microprocessor within. The information on the microprocessor card can be added, removed, or otherwise changed. A phone card with a memory chip can only add information. Smart cards eliminate the need for access to remote databases by keeping all necessary features and data on the card itself. The growing interest in smart cards cuts beyond geographic, industrial, and functional boundaries.

Smart Contract:
A smart contract is a type of blockchain record that contains externally written code and controls blockchain-based digital assets. When triggered by a specified blockchain write event, a smart contract immutably executes its code and may result in another blockchain event.

Smart contracts are neither smart nor contracts and can only read from, and write to, the blockchain. All off-chain interactions with smart contracts must be handled by agents that map between off-chain assets and on-chain digital assets.

 Smart Factory:
The application of various combinations of contemporary technology to develop a hyperflexible, self-adapting manufacturing capability is known as the “smart factory” concept. Through the efficient connection of various processes, information streams, and stakeholders (frontline employees, planners, etc.), smart factories offer the chance to develop new types of efficiency and flexibility. Initiatives related to the “smart factory” may alternatively be referred to as “digital factories” or “intelligent factories.”

Smart Grid:
The smart grid is a concept for the electricity distribution system of the future that increases network resilience and efficiency, gives consumers more control, and addresses issues with energy sustainability.

Utilities will need to increase the observability and controllability of their networks while converting them into geodesic structures that intersperse a variety of distributed energy resources in order to make the grid “smarter” and capable of addressing the need to decarbonize generation sources and enable end-user energy efficiency.

Smart Machines:
Smart machine technologies might offer unexpected results since they self-learn. They must: 

  • Change their actions in response to experience (learning)
  • Avoid relying solely on what others tell you (learn on their own)
  • being able to produce unexpected results 

Smart Manufacturing:
In order to maximize present and future supply and demand requirements, smart manufacturing is the idea of synchronizing physical and digital activities within factories and across other supply chain roles. In order to give the crucial information required to influence decision quality, efficiency, cost, and agility, this is performed by reforming and improving how people, processes, and technology function.

Smart Pills:
In essence, smart pills are ingestible sensors that may record a variety of physiological measurements. They can also be used to measure the effects of the medication and to verify that a patient has taken it as directed.

Smart Terminal:
A display terminal with a full range of local editing features and the ability to operate in conversational or block mode.

Smartphones are cell phones that predominantly use the Android and iOS operating systems, as well as any open operating system that allows programmers to create applications using native APIs and has a software development kit available to them. The quantity and caliber of smartphone applications set them apart from more conventional mobile phones.

SME (Small-to-Midsize Enterprise):
Small and midsize businesses are also referred to as SMEs (small to medium enterprises) (SMB).

SMED (Single Minute Exchange of Die):
Abbreviation for “single minute exchange of die,” a lean strategy that reduces the setup or changeover time in a process so that it can be completed in under 10 minutes (the “single” part refers to single digits, not one minute, i.e., under 10).

SMFP (Smart MFP):
Paper documents can be printed, faxed, copied, and scanned with a standard MFP. An SMFP can also be customized by the user, the technology provider, or a third party. It interacts well with enterprise and office software, has a management-friendly design and user interface, performs well over networks, and is mostly based on open industry standards. Organizations can actively manage their fleet of office printers and MFPs by using SMFPs for usage tracking and other tasks.

SMP (Symmetric Multiprocessing):
A multiprocessor design where each processor is the same, memory is shared, and both user code and operating-system code are executed.

SMR (Specialized Mobile Radio):
A form of wireless communication that competes with traditional cellular services. The base station equipment provider is the licensee of the transmitters in an SMR system. Instead of the few channels of a private mobile radio network, users get access to the network’s many channels. All of the channels are shared by several individuals. First-come, first-served policy governs sharing. The push-to-talk button on the handset is pressed by consumers to start a call. A communication path is formed assuming that the portable unit (as well as the dispatcher or other portable unit) is tuned to an open channel. The call cannot be completed if channels that both the sender and the recipient can utilize are unavailable, and the operator must wait for another chance to try.

SMS (System-Managed Storage):
The phrase is used to conceptualize an architecture for secondary storage attachment, management, and reconfiguration. The separation of logical device management from physical device management is one of the fundamental design aims of SMS.

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol):
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) networks are governed by a message protocol that controls the transmission of electronic mail. Email is moved between computers using it. It is a protocol used between servers. Only text is supported by SMTP; it cannot accept attachments. Instead of the positive announcements required by electronic data interchange, it supports negative delivery notifications (EDI).

A tool for network administration that keeps track of data packets to assist administrators in maintaining message integrity and service level.

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol):
A protocol evolved from Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) that regulates network management and the observation of network devices. The Management Information Base (MIB) described in the SNMP standard is technically what is meant by “SNMP,” but extensions to this MIB proposed by the Electronic Messaging Association allow for the monitoring and reporting of all messaging components that conform using the same standard SNMP management tools for network components.

SNOMED (Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine):
A nomenclature developed for use in pathology by the College of American Pathologists (CAP). Other areas of medicine have gradually been added to SNOMED. It has more than 150,000 products and offers coverage for a wide range of medical disciplines. SNOMED RT for reference terminology and SNOMED CT for combined terminology are both being developed by CAP.

SOA Governance Technologies:
A group of tools and technology known as SOA governance technologies are used to implement and uphold governance processes and policies. They comprise SOA quality assurance and validation systems, SOA registries and repositories, and SOA policy management tools.

SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol):
A protocol that Microsoft introduced in collaboration with a few minor companies. It generates a clear mapping between the definitions of the Extensible Markup Language (XML) and the Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM) interface-defining language (IDL). As a collection of e-services, it offers the essential technology for transit in the next-generation Internet.

SOAP (Subjective, Objective, Assessment and Plan):
A method that doctors use to determine and evaluate a patient’s health condition and the subsequent therapies or courses of care to enhance it.

SOC (Software Oversight Committee):
A healthcare organization is tasked with making sure that any software solutions used don’t put patients at risk. Representatives from many facets of the healthcare industry are present at SOCs. It has been proposed that SOCs be created in a manner similar to the institutional review boards of The Joint Commission (IRBs). IRBs are often made up of risk management attorneys, physicians, medical ethicists, and other interested parties from the healthcare delivery organization (CDO). The work is technically oriented; hence a SOC must represent information systems (IS). To examine all present and future medical software implementations, a SOC should convene regularly. It should also create and maybe enforce a policy intended to guarantee patient safety when it comes to medical software. One of the specific duties of the SOC is to verify that applications work consistently and as expected, for instance, by developing and executing trial scenarios that examine both clinical and system operations. A SOC should make sure that the rule base is kept up to date, that all decision support applications are implemented appropriately, and that they are based on accurate data. It should also look at how different packages work together, paying special attention to any combinations of operations that can possibly result in mistakes that endanger patients.

Social Analytics:
Monitoring, analyzing, measuring, and understanding social media interactions and relationships between individuals, groups, ideas, and information are all parts of social analytics. Both communities with an external focus, and workplace interactions take place. Sentiment analysis, natural language processing, social networking analysis (influencer identification, profiling, and scoring), and more sophisticated techniques like text analysis, predictive modeling, and recommendations, as well as automated subject/topic, person/content identification, and classification, are all examples of social analytics.

Social BPM:
Social BPM refers to processes created and improved through collaboration. To make use of the power of ongoing learning from “the collective,” these methods mimic how work is done from a “doer” viewpoint and experienced from a “receiver” one.

Social Computing:
A method of using information technology where users customize information-based and collaborative tools to facilitate interactions with relatively large and frequently ill-defined groups.

Social Content:
Unstructured data produced, reviewed, annotated, or transmitted through a social process or channel intended for human consumption is known as social content. The usage of enterprise-managed blogs and wikis, externally hosted platforms (such as Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, and others) for document sharing and collaboration, and technologies to support project teams are all examples of social content scenarios.

Social CRM:
To encourage engagement in the business process, social CRM is a business strategy that comprises the expansion of marketing, sales, and customer support operations to incorporate the active participation of clients or visitors to an Internet channel (web or mobile).

Social Feedback:
The capability of social media users to express their thoughts about the value or applicability of the content. “Like” and “dislike,” “thumbs up” and “thumbs down,” “dig it,” “star ratings,” “social commentary,” “tagged” (or mass categorization), “flagging,” and “badging” are typical examples.

Social Gaming:
Social gaming is an online digital game that meets the following criteria: 1) Has at least one gameplay element that makes use of a player’s social network; 2) Facilitates and encourages social interaction and communication about the game outside the game, as opposed to just inside it; and 3) Can be played on PCs, gaming consoles, mobile devices, and other portable devices. Social games do not include digital games that provide an immersive gaming environment without connecting to social networks.

Social Media:
Social media is an online space where the material is produced, consumed, promoted, disseminated, found, or shared with a focus on social activities and communities rather than practical, task-oriented goals. In this context, “media” refers to an environment that emphasizes storage and transmission, while “social” refers to the distinctive ways these communications spread from one person to many or many people to one person.

Social Media Tools:
Tools that make social media easier. RSS, blogs, video logs, widgets, tags, forums, location-based services, Web chats, instant messaging, podcasts, and microblogging services are a few examples.

Social Network Analysis (SNA):
Tools for social network analysis (SNA) are used to examine the relationships between individuals inside groups. They help analyze the interrelationships and social structures of people or organizations and their working routines. SNA entails gathering data from various sources (including surveys, emails, blogs, and other electronic artifacts), analyzing the data to find relationships, and mining it for new information—like the caliber or effectiveness of a relationship. The SNA technique, known as organizational network analysis, looks at how data moves among people. It shows the unofficial social network, which is often made up of teams working for the same company. Value network analysis (VNA) looks at the deliverables traded between roles, which are usually teams of individuals from various organizations that must cooperate. Social media is scanned using social influence network analysis to find influential individuals, groups, or trends.

Social Networking:
The process of creating internet connections between numerous people to share information with the network or specific subsets. Social networking services allow for one-to-one relationships, although most activity involves a wider variety of users in any particular network.

Social Networking Sites:
Open membership is available on social networking sites like LinkedIn, Facebook, and MySpace, where people can gather to exchange information. They serve as an illustration of a decentralized network with emergent properties.

Social Profile:
A summary of a person’s key traits that can be used to meaningfully identify them on a particular social network or in collaboration software.

Social Profiles:
Social profiles are descriptions of a person’s social traits that help others identify them on social media platforms like Facebook and LinkedIn, as well as when they use tools like Digg and delicious and collaboration software like Jive, IBM Connections, or Socialtext. An individual’s interests, skills, professional affiliations, status, most recent activity, and geographic location are just a few traits that can be described in a profile. The place where people-related content will be tagged is in a person’s profile, which serves as their digital identity. An individual’s level of involvement and contribution in various initiatives, projects, communities, or dialogues; their reputation among other participants; and further details are displayed in a social profile to help comprehend the nature and depth of their relationships with others. One can be found by those who could gain from their affiliation by building a solid social media profile. Businesses are also starting to play with social profiles to enhance their brand identification. 

Social Publishing:
The ability of the general public to compile their independently generated content (instead of sharing development via a wiki) into a valuable repository and shared channel for social use and feedback.

Social Search:
Social search using implicit and explicit user behavior aspects improves search results inside and outside of businesses. A social search is a form of metadata mining because such components are frequently saved as metadata. Additionally, it makes it easier for users to distinguish between the results of their queries.

Social Software:
The technologies that promote, collect, and organize open and free-form interaction between employees, clients, and partners are referred to as social software by Gartner. It is a “socializing” technology—also known as Enterprise 2.0—that provides a bottom-up strategy for generating and utilizing collective knowledge.

Social Software Standards:
To promote interoperability, data/service access, and reuse between social software environments, industry associations have agreed on protocols and data formats, or they are implemented in practice by several products or services.

Social Systems:
The environment in which everyone works. Social systems are created from the people, organizations, relationships, tools, processes, and information that make up a group of people.

Social Tagging (Folksonomy):
Folksonomies, commonly referred to as “social tagging,” are user-defined metadata collections. A folksonomy develops when many people create or store content at specific sites and describe what they believe the content is about, even though users don’t intentionally build them, and there is rarely a predetermined goal. On a folksonomy site, “tag clouds” highlight different identifiers and their usage patterns. Although this kind of grassroots community classification is vulnerable to manipulation and vandalism (like other social networking strategies, such as blogs and wikis), it is an excellent illustration of collective intelligence. Taxonomies should not be confused with folksonomies. While taxonomies are classifications determined by more formal processes that only sometimes include user-generated tags and are rarely considered similar, folksonomies organize content through user tags.

Social Technologies:
Any technology that enables communications and promotes social engagement, such as the Internet or a mobile device. Examples include social software that is geared at and facilitates social interactions, such as wikis, blogs, and social networks, as well as communication tools, such as web conferencing.

Social Web:
The range of possibilities for users (the general public) to actively engage in open group activities online. The human social component of Web 2.0 is commonly referred to as the social web.

Social Casting:
Social casting offers compact, transportable tools to create pre-planned and spontaneous live broadcasts. Consumer webcam videocasts have given way to a distinct division between an increasing number of reputable news organizations and consumer webcasts on social media in this market, which started as consumer webcasts.

The interprocess communications model from Berkeley. A socket defines the endpoints of a two-way communications channel that joins two processes so they can communicate back and forth and exchange data.

Softswitch Architecture:
VoIP gateways, application servers, and softswitches/MGCs make up the Softswitch architecture. These are some of the names given to the vital network components of Softswitch architecture. The phrases “Softswitch” and “Softswitch architecture” refer to the distributed switching technology that combines a Softswitch, VoIP gateway, and application server.

Although they must adhere to the NG standards set by Cable Television Laboratories (CableLabs) for packetized voice-over-cable networks, softswitches for cable networks are primarily the same as those used by conventional telephone operators.

To support wireline or mobile trunking, traditional operators’ core networks and the networks of long-distance service providers primarily use Softswitch topologies. Many VoIP-based calling card services and Class 5 services are provided through voice-over-broadband networks built on Class 5 architecture. Due to the delayed rollout of third-generation (3G) infrastructure and the RAN’s highly optimized TDM architecture, the adoption of mobile softswitches in mobile networks is constrained.

With the changeover to SIP, the 3GPP and ETSI TISPAN standards are better suited to developing IMS-compliant applications thanks to Softswitch design.

A Softswitch is connected to a server (such as a Sun Microsystems or Unix workstation, for example), which runs the application to deliver services without a physical switch. A media gateway, which is the component that physically connects to the PSTN, IP network, or ATM network, is also connected to a Softswitch.

A call agent, a call server, or an MGC are other names for a Softswitch. It is a piece of equipment that offers the standard call control capabilities or switching matrix of Class 4 and Class 5 switches. A Softswitch is also a mobile switching center in a mobile network (MSC). 

  • Intelligence that manages connection services for a media gateway or native IP endpoint, at the very least.
  • The choice of procedures that can be used during a call.
  • Call routing inside the network based on signals and data from consumer databases.
  • A call’s ability to be handed off to another network component.
  • Support and interfaces for management tasks, including provisioning fault-tolerant billing.
  • Support various protocols, such as subsets of MGCP, Media Gateway Control Protocol (Megaco), SIP, SS7, call processing language, H.323 and Q.931/Q.2931.
  • DiffServ, the Resource Reservation Protocol (RRP), the Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP), the Real-Time Control Protocol (RTCP), MPLS, and IEEE 802.11p
  • Adherence to or cooperation with a few subsets of standards from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), 3GPP/3GPP2, Frame Relay Forum, ATM Forum, IEEE’s IMS Forum, and International Telecommunication Union (ITU).

Software as a Service (SaaS):
Software owned, supplied, and managed remotely by one or more providers is known as software as a service (SaaS). In a one-to-many approach, the supplier provides software consumed at any time by all contracted clients on a pay-per-use basis or as a subscription depending on use metrics.

Software Development:
Any major application development project will involve project management, specifications, design, programming, testing, installation, and training.

Software Maintenance:
Software updates, new features, bug fixes, and problem resolution. With their software, technology suppliers frequently sell maintenance contracts. This agreement is typically computed as an annual charge based on a portion of the overall cost of the software. It often offers general maintenance and support for software products, including apps. Consent may also include phone support hours.

Software Support Services:
Software support services are typically provided as technical support or break/fix services for specific software packages. These services include revenue from on-demand, incident-based support or long-term technical support contracts. Typical components of software support services include remote troubleshooting capabilities, installation assistance, and fundamental usability support. Remote troubleshooting skills may be offered over the phone and online communication channels and automatically using tools that run on the customer’s device or are online.

The installation of new software, software updates, migrations for significant software releases, various proactive or reactive on-site services, and support for custom applications or infrastructure software are all examples of software support services. A product vendor, a consultancy company, or a third-party software maintainer can provide assistance.

This category of software goods and technologies includes infrastructure software, application software, and commercial and customized operating systems. Updates and upgrades to software licensing codes, which manufacturers frequently classify as software maintenance, are not included in software support services.

The market segments covered in Gartner’s software market data precisely correspond to those covered in software support.

Software-defined Networks:
Software support services are typically provided as technical support or break/fix services for specific software packages. These services include revenue from on-demand, incident-based support or long-term technical support contracts. Typical components of software support services include remote troubleshooting capabilities, installation assistance, and fundamental usability support. Remote troubleshooting skills may be offered over the phone and online communication channels and automatically using tools that run on the customer’s device or are online.

The installation of new software, software updates, migrations for significant software releases, various proactive or reactive on-site services, and support for custom applications or infrastructure software are all examples of software support services. A product vendor, a consultancy company, or a third-party software maintainer can provide assistance.

This category of software goods and technologies includes infrastructure software, application software, and commercial and customized operating systems. Updates and upgrades to software licensing codes, which manufacturers frequently classify as software maintenance, are not included in software support services.

The market segments covered in Gartner’s software market data precisely correspond to those covered in software support.

Software-Defined Radio (SDR):
Significant portions of a wireless function can be controlled by software-defined radio (SDR) rather than conventional hardware control. Software control enables devices to switch between protocols and frequencies dynamically. SDR is most appealing when several standards are needed or when standards are in flux and unknown. An essential component of SDR, intelligent antennas are often built as an array of features with configurable field size, frequency, and waveform shape parameters.

Software-Defined WAN (SD-WAN):
Traditional WAN routers can be replaced with SD-WAN solutions independent of WAN transport protocols. Across numerous WAN connections, SD-WAN offers dynamic, policy-based application path selection and supports service chaining for extra services like WAN optimization and firewalls.

SOHO (Small Office/Home Office):
A sector of the market for office supplies or computer accessories (e.g., printers or copiers). The pricing and functionality of products geared toward the SOHO market are often cheaper than those made to support large corporate office environments.

Solid-state Appliances:
Instead of hard disk drives (HDDs), solid-state appliances are solely based on semiconductor memory technology (usually NAND flash or DRAM) and come with fully integrated, higher-level optimization software. High availability (HA), improved capacity efficiency, automatic data management, and assured levels of performance (even when the solid-state drives [SSDs] are more than 80% complete) should all be made possible by the storage software management layer.

Solid-State Drives (SSDs):
SSDs are the primary storage component in PCs for mobile computing, and they solely function as storage network accelerators in data centers. SSD classifications are determined by end-consumption requirements rather than certain form factors or interfaces. Embedded solid-state storage installations that use detachable modules and nonvolatile memory caching techniques to supplement other storage devices are not included in this category. There are five subcategories of SSDs: industrial SSD, entry-level PC, mainstream PC, enterprise server, and enterprise storage.

To support a group of business or technological capabilities that address one or more business challenges, a solution is integrating people, processes, information, and technologies into a specific system.

Solution Architecture:
An architectural description of a particular solution is called solution architecture (SA). SAS incorporates recommendations from the enterprise solution architecture and other enterprise architecture perspectives (business, information, and technical) (ESA).

Solution Portfolio:
To coordinate change across these solutions, a solution portfolio describes the relationships between implemented solutions of a specific type (such as apps or common infrastructure). The consistency, interoperability, and portability of the group’s answers are improved by using a portfolio approach to manage solutions collectively and interactions across portfolios.

SONET (Synchronous Optical Network):
Fiber-optic transmission systems can be connected via the SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) technology, which is available only in North America. Midway through the 1980s, Bellcore proposed SONET, which is now an ANSI standard. The seven-layer Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model’s physical layer is where SONET sets interface standards. Data streams moving at various rates can be multiplexed thanks to the hierarchy of interface rates defined by the bar. The OC (Optical Carrier) levels established by SONET range from 51.8 Mbps (OC-1) to 9.95 Gbps (OC-192). Synchronous Digital Hierarchy is the International Telecommunication Union’s (ITU) standard for SONET on a global scale (SDH).

Source Encoding:
A compression method that considers the type of information being compressed. Lookup entropy encoding.

Source Routing:
A method used in local-area networks (LANs) where the frame’s source provides a routing information field that details the whole route to the destination.

Source Traffic Descriptor:
A set of settings is used while establishing a connection in asynchronous transfer mode (ATM).

SOW (Statement of Work):
The objectives portion of the statement of work allows the customer to emphasize the desired end state or performance metric that must be attained. Additionally, each work order’s cost, technical approach, and prior performance must be evaluated. The customer decides the relative weighting of each criterion.

SP (Service Pack):
A minor revision to a software product that contains feature updates or bug fixes but not enough new code to warrant a unique version number.

Space Segment:
A specific satellite communications system or network’s in-orbit satellite component. Also, see the ground segment.

Spaghetti Chart:
A visual representation of how people, materials, or processes move to spot waste movement or transit and eliminate it.

Numerous newsgroups were inundated indiscriminately by Usenet messages. Junk mail is also referred to in this way.

Using a large number of words or phrases hidden within a Web page to maximize the number of hits the page receives from Internet searches.

SPC (Statistical Process Control):
Use statistical methods to assess process outputs and offer feedback for process control loops to maintain or improve process capabilities.

A broad, continuous band of frequencies throughout which waves share specific, distinctive properties.

Spectrum Harmonization:
A worldwide initiative led by the ITU to persuade governments and regulators to distribute RF spectrum uniformly across national borders, enabling international roaming, interoperability, and international markets for telecom equipment. The World Radiocommunication Conference, which the ITU hosts every four years, is where global and regional spectrum assignments are negotiated and approved. The 1.9GHz to 2.1GHz spectrum, which has been assigned to UMTS practically everywhere, is a recent example. The WiMAX Forum is making similar initiatives to assist the global allocation of 3.5GHz and 2.5GHz for wireless broadband.

Speech Circuit:
A circuit intended for analog or encoded speech transmission can also be used for data transfer or telegraphy.

Speech Recognition:
Speech recognition software analyzes spoken words and converts them into text or actions. Self-service and call routing for contact center applications, speech-to-text conversion for desktop text entry, form filling, voice mail transcription, user interface management, and content navigation for mobile devices, PCs, and in-car systems are the main uses. Although commercially available, controlling toys and consumer goods (like TVs) are only sometimes employed.

SPF (Shortest Path First):
A link-state protocol that seeks out the best path between two sites using a set of user-defined criteria.

A piece of software, usually called a web crawler, is created to follow hyperlinks all the way through and report on visited Internet addresses. 


  1. The act of a router keeping messages from a host alive rather than sending them to a remote client to avoid incurring call charges. Primarily utilized in Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN).
  2. A packet that makes a fraudulent claim to have come from an address other than the one it did. 

SPP (Service Parts Planning):
The aftermarket’s best inventory levels and locations for components used to repair internal assets or client equipment are supported by service parts planning (SPP). Applications for SPP address procedures like:

  • Forecasting and demand planning
  • Inventory planning and optimization
  • Distribution/allocation and supply planning 
  • Collaboration
  • Workforce planning
  • Analytics and BAM (including visibility and event management) 
  • Pricing optimization


Spread Spectrum:
Radio technology allows multiple radio communication links to use the same frequency band without mutual interference.

SQL (Structured Query Language):
A relational data language that offers a consistent, English keyword-oriented set of queries, data definition, data manipulation, and data control facilities. It is a software interface for relational database management systems (RDBMSs). IBM introduced SQL as the primary external interface to System R, its experimental RDBMS developed in the 1970s. SQL statements include the following:

  • Data manipulation language statements: SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE
  • Statements controlling data consistency and granting and rescinding authority

SQL statements are referred to as “dynamic” when they are not fully specified until the program is run. When they are entirely set when the program is compiled, they are referred to as “static.” SQL is precise because it is based on predicate logic. Still, it is difficult for average users to understand, and it is most useful as a protocol for software-to-software connectivity rather than human-to-software access.

SRA is a Subsidy, Reimbursement, or Allowance frequently used to offset an employee’s cost of using personal technologies in the workplace, such as for Bring Your Device (BYOD) programs. The term refers to all employer contributions to the program, regardless of the method used. SRA methods may have tax and processing cost implications.

SSM (System and Server Evaluation Model):
A Gartner model focuses on the six major categories of server platform differentiation: performance and scalability, high availability, software vendor enthusiasm, platform architectural longevity, systems, network management software, and maintenance.

SSL (Secure Sockets Layer):
Netscape Communications’ Internet security standard is used in its browser and server software.

SSN (Switched Service Network):
A telephone network comprised of terminals, transmission links, and at least one exchange through which any user at any time can communicate with any other user.

SSP (Service Switching Point):
A telecommunications switch in an intelligent network that handles a call using supplementary routing and database information from a service control point (SCP).

SSP (Storage Service Provider):
A business that provides computer storage and management services. SSPs typically provide periodic backup and archiving in addition to hold, and some offer to consolidate data from multiple enterprise locations so that all areas can effectively share the data.

SSPC (Structure, Scripting, Populating, and Channel Outputs):
A framework for document creation that requires four core mechanisms for defining document structure, scripting, populating (filling), and output channels.

  1. Structure definition includes tools for defining components (e.g., title, author, introduction, conclusion) and their order (e.g., “introductions” come before “conclusions”). Editing cannot be used to change or remove the defined sequence.
  2. Scripting is procedural logic that defines how to derive (i.e., calculate) content and access or create queries that test and conditionally incorporate content from external sources (such as databases), other applications, and content repositories.
  3. Populating runs scripts against the structural definition to generate a copy of the content model specified in the document definition. This is part of the execution of data and content retrieval, queries, and computations to generate a fleshed-out document (an “instance”) from the document skeleton defined by structural and scripting elements.
  4. Content is controlled by output channels, which allow the same content to be formatted and composed for multiple media, such as print, web, or CD-ROM delivery. 

Stalking Horses:
Stalking horses are conceptual models used to test new ideas and stimulate discussion.

A document that suggests a protocol, interface, wiring type, or other aspects of a system. It could even mean something as broad as a conceptual framework or model (e.g., a communications architecture). Internationally or nationally recognized standards bodies or vendors create de jure standards. De facto standards are vendor-developed protocols or architectures that are widely used.

Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation (SPEC):
To grade and compare the performance of processors, the Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation (SPEC), a vendor consortium, chooses and standardizes benchmark programs provided by members or outsiders.

User-accepted specifications or design trends that many companies have followed. The interoperability of hardware, software, and everything in between depends on standards. The fundamental components of a computer and accompanying infrastructure can cooperate thanks to industry standards. Hardware and software developers can create products that will function together thanks to standards, which give requirements. The following issues could arise as a result of standards deviation:

  • A piece of software does not function with a specific operating system.
  • A plug on a keyboard does not fit into the corresponding outlet on a computer.
  • Because a specific Web page is not prepared following browser specifications, an Internet browser cannot read it.
  • Privately developed software does not function online.

Static Application Security Testing (SAST):
A collection of tools known as static application security testing (SAST) is used to examine the source code, byte code, and binary files of applications to look for coding and design flaws that might indicate security vulnerabilities. In a non-running state, SAST solutions perform an “inside-out” analysis of the application.

Statistical Multiplexing:
In the time-division multiplexing technique known as statistical multiplexing, time slots are dynamically assigned based on demand (i.e., spaces are allocated to equipment with data to be transmitted).

Statistical Quality Control/Statistical Process Control:
A collection of methodologies and procedures based on statistical concepts controls the quality of outputs and operations.

STDM (Statistical Time-Division Multiplexing):
On a multiplexer, time is dynamically split among the active channels.

STEP (Specification, Tracking, Evaluation, Production):
The four stages are the foundation for crucial actions in effectively deploying cutting-edge technology. As follows:

  1. Specification – aligns corporate strategy and technology focus. 
  2. Tracking – evaluates individual technologies for maturity and business impact. 
  3. Evaluation – includes prototyping and other in-depth evaluation activities further to gauge the readiness and relevance of the technology. 
  4. Production – involves piloting the technology and, if successful, deploying it fully.

The all-encompassing word is used to describe features of websites that draw and retain visitors. It is assumed that a sticky website provides more value than one that is not.

STM (Synchronous Transfer Mode):
A multiplexing approach that divides time into slots or buckets and assigns time units to circuits regardless of whether they have data to send. Check out asynchronous transfer mode.

Storage Appliance:
A particular class of computing device that maintains or distributes data to other network-connected computing devices Storage appliances, in contrast to server appliances, offer or manage data without regard to an application environment. Storage area network (SAN) and network-attached storage (NAS) devices fall under this computing equipment category. See NAS, SAN, a server appliance, and a computer appliance.

Storage Management Software:
All software products marketed as value-added options to run on a server, storage network device, or storage device to help manage the device or manage and safeguard the data are included in the market for storage management software. Sales of new licenses to update an existing license to a recent version, telephone support, and on-site remedial support are all part of the maintenance and support services revenue stream. Professional services are not included in revenue. Products must represent an income stream for the business that is tracked individually to be covered by this coverage; they cannot just be a component of a packaged good or service. This market includes hosted storage solutions like hosted backup and hosted email archiving. From the desktop to the mainframe, storage management software is available. It includes programs that support a diverse range of devices and those that concentrate on a single or a small number of devices. There are seven segments in the market for storage management software. The total of all the segments makes up storage management software, which is all the equipment required to control the capacity, speed, and availability of data stored on disks, tapes, and optical media, as well as any networking equipment the data may pass through.

Storage Resource Management (SRM):
The availability, capacity, and performance of the storage infrastructure, as well as device management, problem identification, configuration planning, and change management, are all provided by storage resource management (SRM) software. Inhomogeneous and heterogeneous systems, SRM software, provides data that may be utilized for IT consumption tracking and chargeback by identifying storage usage, availability, and performance by application, business unit, or user. Additionally offered to automate operational chores are features for workflow management and storage provisioning. Complete product suites and specialized solutions that handle a single issue, like storage area network (SAN) management or analytics, are delivered.

Storage Subsystem Hardware Services:
Storage subsystem services, as well as RAID-based storage system services, are included in this area.

  • RAID-based storage system services — This category comprises network-attached storage, host-based internal RAID storage, external controller-based RAID storage, and all other RAID-based disk storage. A group of disk drives (at least two) with input/output activity controlled by external-based or host-based RAID technology are referred to as being in a RAID.
  • Other storage subsystem services include upgrades and replacements for hard drives, optical libraries, and tape libraries. 

Storage Support Services:
Hard drive upgrades/replacements, optical libraries, tape libraries, and RAID-based storage system services are all included in this sector.

Store-and-Forward Voice:
A processor-controlled system called “store-and-forward voice” makes it possible to record, edit, send, save, and forward voice messages. Using any 12-button dial pad, users can access and control the system in response to voice commands from the system.

Strategic Information Office (SIO):
The SIO is a business-unit-neutral information office with the mandate to promote enterprise information management’s importance to all business units, foster enthusiasm for these initiatives, negotiate organizational and technological issues across the enterprise, and enforce standard implementation and observance at all levels of the enterprise. The SIO should include at least one representative from senior management and members with extensive expertise and experience in business and technology. The “office of the chief data officer (CDO)” is another name for the SIO.

A method that enables the continuous, one-way transmission of audio and video data via the Internet and, more recently, over a mobile network. Unlike music and video files that must first be downloaded (such as MP3 and MPEG), streaming media starts playing immediately after the request. A streaming server that transmits the encoded media over a network, a streaming encoder that turns the audio or video source into a data stream, and a client media player that works with the server to deliver uninterrupted material are all necessary for streaming. The client buffers a brief segment of audio or video before starting delivery to account for network latency and quality changes and then strives to maintain an advantage during playback. RealPlayer, QuickTime, and Windows Media are a few streaming software examples.

Structural Change:
Structural change is a broad transformation that modifies the movement of power, resources, knowledge, and responsibility inside and between organizations. Structural change impacts all players in one or more specific industries, either directly or indirectly.

Sub-11GHz Proprietary BWA:
The proprietary sub-11GHz broadband wireless access (BWA) systems are not IEEE 802.16 or WiMAX certified. They consist of innovations like IPWireless, Flarion, and iBurst. They are typically used to supply broadband data services or speedy Internet access to business and residential subscribers or to give service providers quick and easy access to corporate subscribers. These solutions make it possible for isolated rural locations to have affordable network connectivity. Exclusive BWA systems operating at sub-11GHz deliver more than 1 Mbps to each customer.

Sub-voice-grade Channel:
A channel that has a smaller bandwidth than voice-grade channels. These channels are often voice-grade line subchannels.

A component of a network that is identified by a subnet number and may be physically separate from another network portion but uses the same network address as the other network portion.

Subnet Mask:
The components of an IP address that are used for a subnetwork.

Subnet Number:
The area of an Internet address is used to identify a subnet. Although it is utilized for intranet routing, it is not for internet routing.

Super Wi-Fi:
A new prototype system called Super Wi-Fi uses the “white space” between licensed TV frequencies. Compared to conventional Wi-Fi radios that adhere to the IEEE 802.11 protocol, they can penetrate buildings more efficiently and cover greater distances. The unlicensed 2.4 and 5 GHz bands are where Wi-Fi operates.

The ability to run industry-standard network operating systems is combined with the input/output (I/O) capabilities of multiprocessor devices designed as network servers.

Supply Chain:
The supply chain is a collection of activities and procedures to streamline the movement of goods, services, and associated data from suppliers to consumers or other demand locations. It extends from consumers and the clients of those customers through several echelons of the supply chain. Within a business and its network of partners, it covers supply chain planning, sourcing and procurement, production, distribution, transportation, and services. Supply chain managers might change their roles and processes.

Supply Chain Architecture Life Cycle:
The practice of controlling the complete life cycle of each capacity in your supply chain is known as the Gartner Supply Chain Architecture Life Cycle (SCALe). The life cycle of each supply chain capacity involves the conception, design, and launch (physical, financial, and digital), use for delivering customers’ flawless orders, performance monitoring, refining, and, finally, the retirement of the associated processes, structures, and governance. It offers a guideline for the creation and implementation of a strategy. Get ready for supply chain management in the future.

Supply Chain Execution (SCE):
Supply chain execution (SCE) is concerned with execution-oriented applications such as warehouse management systems (WMSs), transportation management systems (TMSs), global trade management (GTM) systems, and other execution applications such as real-time decision support systems (for example, dynamic routing and dynamic sourcing systems) and supply chain visibility systems both within the enterprise and throughout the extended supply chain. Order management systems are sometimes included in SCE, but Gartner does not include order management in its definition of SCE. Modules and applications that are commonly used include:

  • WMSs:
    • Labor management systems
    • Yard and dock management
    • Returns administration
    • Inventory management
  • TMSs:
    • Software that manages domestic transportation.
    • Global multimodal transportation administration (managing transportation around multimodal processes)
  • GTM systems:
    • Trade conformity
    • International logistics/global logistics
    • Global order administration
    • Financial management of global trade

Supply Chain Management (SCM):
The procedures of generating and meeting demands for goods and services are referred to as supply chain management (SCM). It includes a group of trading partners who 

Supply Chain Planning (SCP):
Supply chain planning (SCP) is a proactive process that involves organizing resources to balance supply and demand while optimizing the flow of goods, services, and information from supplier to customer. An SCP suite sits on top of a transactional system to enable planning, capability for what-if scenario analysis, and real-time commitments to demand while considering limitations. Standard modules consist of the following:

  • able to deliver on promises
  • Integrated business planning and sales and operations planning
  • Coordinated planning (including forecasting and replenishment)
  • Direct point of sale and inventory maintained by the vendor
  • Event preparation (promotion, life cycle)
  • Demand forecasting
  • inventory management
  • scheduling and production planning
  • distribution strategy (unconstrained, distribution requirements planning [DRP] and deployment)
  • design of a strategic network
  • Inventory strategy improvement (simultaneous, multitiered)
  • planning the supply (optimized, DRP, and deployment)
  • Planning for production/multiplant capacity (master production scheduling, rough-cut capacity planning)

Supply Chain Segmentation:
The creation and management of clearly differentiated end-to-end value chains (from customers to suppliers) optimized by a mix of unique customer value, product characteristics, manufacturing and supply capabilities, and business value considerations. The dynamic synchronization of customer channel demands and supply response capabilities optimized for net profitability across each segment is the essence of supply chain segmentation. Get ready for supply chain management in the future.

Surface Computers:
Surface computers are large-screen monitors that enable touch or gesture-based direct interaction. They could be vertical or horizontal (made into a piece of furniture like a tabletop) (wall-mounted, or free-standing). While they frequently recognize several users and enable collaborative use, they incorporate the aspects of multitouch interactions in mobile devices—the capacity to stretch over the surface limits size physically. Larger displays typically allow for a gestural interface where the user can interact without touching the screen.

Sustainability Management:
A management field called sustainability management encompasses organizational strategies, operational skills, competencies, behaviors, and cultures. It focuses on the firm, the supply chain, and the products and services it offers. It aims to achieve the best possible organizational performance and outcomes regarding economic, environmental, and social standards over time.

SVG Interface (Scalable Vector Graphics Interface):
XML-based image software and language that major electronic publishing suppliers support. The SVG interface is a solution for sharing several complex, Web-based images. Compared to bitmapped pictures, vector graphics are more compact and may be modified by client devices to best suit display characteristics.

SVGA (Super Video Graphics Array):
A display standard developed by the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA) that offers a more excellent resolution than the 640 by 480 Video Graphics Array (VGA) standard. Depending on the computer system and the amount of memory available, it can support up to 16 million colors. 

SWAP (Simple Workflow Access Protocol):
An Internet-based protocol was created to interact with or access a general workflow service or process using the Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP). The Workflow Management Coalition (WfMC) has supported SWAP, which will provide a set of uniform specifications for the kind and structure of messages transmitted between cooperating workflow systems. SWAP enables one workflow system to launch, oversee, communicate with, and manage workflow instances on another workflow system. It will also give workflow systems a means to connect to other web-based services.

SWIFT (Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication):
The banking and financial sector uses the self-descriptive messaging format SWIFT (Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication) to allow electronic funds transfers. The organization that created the format and offered messaging and transaction processing services to its member banks and other financial institutions, such as brokers, securities depositories, clearing houses, and stock exchanges, is called SWIFT.

A switch is a tool used to switch from one electrical circuit to another or to make, break, or alter connections in an electrical circuit. The phrase is frequently used interchangeably with private branch exchange (PBX), and central office (CO) switches in the telecommunications sector.

Switch-based Storage Virtualization:
By separating the control path (slow path) from the data path, switch-based virtualization, an out-of-band method to storage virtualization, can solve the majority of performance and scalability problems associated with storage network block virtualization (fast path).

Switched Line:
A line on the public telephone network; is one of several lines that can be connected through a switching center.

Switched Network:
A multipoint communications network with the ability to swap circuits, such as the telephone network.

The creation of a transmission line between a specific inlet and a specific output within a collection of such inlets and outlets.

Switching Center:
An area that terminates several circuits and can join circuits together or transfer traffic between circuits.

A change to an alternative component may be made when the equipment fails. Also known as failover

A mobile operating system that was based on the EPOC from Psion. Until 2009, a separate firm jointly held by Nokia, Ericsson, Sony Ericsson, Panasonic, Siemens, and Samsung created the Symbian operating system and licensed it to makers of mobile devices. Nokia acquired the remaining owners of Symbian in 2009 and turned it into an open-source foundation. Beginning in January 2010, the Symbian Foundation, which serves as the platform’s governing body, will operate Symbian as an open-source project.

Similar timing between transmitting and receiving equipment establishment

Synchronized Bills Of Materials:
According to Gartner, a synchronized bill of materials (BOM) capability allows value chains—including OEMs, suppliers, and service providers—to synchronize various views of the products in various BOMs.

The interval of time that exists between subsequent characters, bits, or occurrences. Asynchronous transmission, which requires a start and stop bits, is slower and less effective than synchronous transmission, which uses no redundant information to identify the beginning and end of characters. Timing is accomplished by sending sync characters before data; synchronization is typically accomplished in two- or three-character intervals.

Synchronous Communications:
Transmission of character groupings in a fast manner. A clock rate is used by the stream of bits being read and watched.

Synchronous Network:
A network where every communication channel is synced at the same time.

Synchronous Transmission:
Timing is accomplished by sending sync characters first, then the data. It is quicker and more effective since it does not rely on redundant information like the start and stop bits in asynchronous transmission to identify the beginning and end of characters.

SyncML (Synchronization Markup Language):
A project initially started to create a standard synchronization protocol that would work with any device over any network and among goods from different vendors. The protocol was designed to accommodate a variety of media formats and transports.

Message structure or grammar (e.g., field lengths and delineators, headers, footers, and optional fields).

Synthetic Data:
Synthetic data is created by applying a sampling technique to real-world data or by creating simulation scenarios in which models and processes interact to produce completely new data that is not derived directly from the real world.

System Integration:
Designing or implementing a unique architecture or application, integrating it with new or existing hardware, packaged and bespoke software, and managing communications as part of establishing a complex information system. Most businesses rely on an outside contractor for program management of the majority or all phases of system development. The risks associated with the project are typically also heavily assumed by this external vendor.

System Management:
Any of a variety of “housekeeping” tasks designed to protect, keep or fix a computer system’s functionality. Included are such commonplace but important procedures as virus scanning, file and disk integrity testing, backup and recovery, software distribution, and file and hardware diagnostics.

Software as a Service is a method of delivering software in which all related data is centrally hosted in the cloud. Users often utilize a thin client to access SaaS through a web browser.

Safe mode:
A way to start your Windows computer that can aid in problem diagnosis; just basic drivers and data are accessible.

Access to consolidated, block-level storage is made possible by a specialized storage network called a storage area network (SAN). SANs are typically used to connect storage devices (such as disk arrays, tape libraries, and optical jukeboxes) to servers so that the operating system sees them as locally attached. A SAN normally has its network of storage units that are typically not reachable by regular devices through the regular network.

Serial ATA, also known as Serial Advanced Technology Attachment A better, more effective interface that is used to connect ATA hard drives to a computer’s motherboard; Serial ATA is likely to replace the outmoded prior standard, Parallel ATA (PATA).

Satellite transmission:
A means of transmitting data in which the sender sends information upwards to an orbiting satellite, which then beams the information back down to the receiver.

Screen reader:
A piece of software that converts the text on a web page into audio output, commonly used by people with visual impairments.

Scroll bar:
The small rectangular bar on the far right of windows or dialog boxes in a graphical user interface system. You can go up and down through a document by clicking the up or down arrow; a movable square shows where you are on the page. In some apps, you can scroll from side to side using a bar that runs along the bottom of the display.

Search engine:
A program that does keyword searches on documents and provides a list of potential matches, most frequently used in connection with tools like Google that are used by web browsers to search the Internet for certain topics.

Secure Server:
A unique file server where access is permitted only after authentication (i.e., entering a valid login and password).

Security token:
A token is a small device that adds an extra layer of security to access a certain network service; the token itself may be on a smart card or implanted in another object—known as an authentication token as well.

Section 508:
After June 25, 2001, all electronic and information technology developed, purchased, or used by the federal government must be accessible to people with disabilities, according to a 1998 modification to the Workforce Rehabilitation Act of 1973. For further details, visit the Section 508 website.

Self-extracting file:
A specific compressed file may be opened by double-clicking on its name to start the decompression process; no further decompression software is needed. Examples include specific files with the “.exe” extension on IBM PC or compatibles and all files with the “.sea” extension on Macintosh computers.

Serial port:
An interface on a computer that supports transmission of a single bit at a time; can be used for connecting almost any type of external device, including a mouse, a modem, or a printer.

A computer that is in charge of answering requests made by client software or computers, such as an email client or web browser. Sometimes known as a “file server.”

Software protected by copyright is accessible for download and can be used for a brief time before requiring registration and a nominal charge. You will then be qualified to get support and updates from the author. Compare this to freeware, which is copyrighted but does not charge a price, or to software in the public domain, both of which are not.

Personal information files can be automatically attached to outgoing emails; many network newsreaders also support this feature. Large signatures longer than five lines are typically discouraged.

A single in-line memory module, a tiny circuit board that can accommodate a collection of memory chips, is used to boost the RAM on your computer by 1, 2, 4, or 16 MB.

A technique for managing outgoing electronic mail is called the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.

Any program that carries out a specified task. Word processing, spreadsheet calculations, or email are a few examples.

Unsolicited bulk email (UBE), commonly known as junk email or spam email, is a form of spam that entails sending identical messages via email to several recipients. Email sent in mass and without the recipient’s consent is typically included in definitions of spam. From chat rooms, websites, customer lists, newsgroups, and viruses that capture users’ address books, spammers gather email addresses that they then sell to other spammers. Additionally, they employ a technique known as “email appending” or “epending,” in which they look for a target’s email address using known information about the target (such as a postal address). See “Anti-Spam” as well.

A wireless network’s service set identifier is its name.

Streaming (streaming media):
It is a method of sending data over the Internet that allows a client browser or plug-in to begin displaying it before the whole file has been received; it is frequently used with sound and visual content. Example: Your computer can stream audio using the Flash Player plug-in from Adobe Systems; sound and video are viewed using RealPlayer.

Any software that uses a user’s Internet connection to collect user information, typically for advertising purposes secretly.

A group of related files on a hard drive; on IBM PCs or compatibles, a directory that lies below another directory. Subdirectories are referred to as folders on Macintosh computers.

Super VGA is a set of graphics specifications for a computer display that provides a higher resolution than VGA. 800 x 600 pixels, 1024 x 768 pixels, 1280 x 1024 pixels, and 1600 x 1200 pixels are some of the available levels. The number of colors that may be displayed simultaneously is determined by the quantity of video RAM installed in the computer, even though each supports a palette of 16 million colors.


Table Driven:

  1. A logical computer procedure where a user-entered variable is compared to a list of predetermined values that are often used in the functioning of communications devices and networks
  2. A logic operation often utilized in modem functioning, access security, and network routing.

Tacit Knowledge:
Personal information is found in people’s thoughts, actions, and perceptions. Skills, experiences, insight, intuition, and judgment are all tacit knowledge. Since tacit information is often transmitted through conversation, tales, analogies, and interpersonal contact, it is challenging to record or express it explicitly. Tactic information is, by definition, uncaptured since people constantly add personal knowledge, which alters behavior and perceptions.

TACS (Total Access Communications System):
First used in the UK for 900MHz frequency band services, the analog cellular standard. Utilizing a channel spacing of 25 kHz, it provides up to 1,320 channels.

Tag Management:
The deployment and upkeep of JavaScript tags, used in online content to interface with applications like Web analytics, customization, and advertising, are made simpler by tag management systems. When a single tag is performed, all other titles are replaced. The tag manager publishes more tags based on business rules and a shared data model. This separates tag control and upkeep from the lifespan of other information, accelerates change and improves tag quality, and creates an audit trail.

Takt Time:
German for “beat,” the manufacturing rate determined by client demand or pulls.

Talent Management Suites:
An integrated group of modules known as a talent management (TM) suite serves an organization’s requirement to plan, recruit, develop, reward, engage, and retain employees. Workforce planning, hiring and onboarding, goal-setting, learning management, competence management, career development, succession, and pay are among the functionalities offered by the modules. The functional modules support the following fundamental human capital management (HCM) procedures:

  • Plan to source
  • Buy and aboard
  • Work to be rewarded 
  • Evaluate to grow

The supply of features to promote employee engagement and collaboration has increased demand in the TM suite market. The market’s overall health has also improved due to the increased need for more advanced analytical capabilities and predictive insights to aid decision-making about workforce activities.

Technical Support:
Technical assistance (tech support) refers to a variety of services provided by businesses to their consumers for items such as software, mobile phones, printers, and other electrical, mechanical, or electromechanical devices. Rather than giving training on how to use the product, technical support services typically assist consumers in resolving common problems.

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol):
A communication protocol based on the requirements the US Department of Defense sets forth for dependable data transmission via the internet.

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol):
A group of protocols that roughly correspond to the network and transport levels of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) network model’s seven layers. The US Department of Defense oversaw the development of TCP/IP for 15 years. It has become a de facto industry standard, especially for higher-level Ethernet layers.

TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access):
Many discussions can take place simultaneously using a digital modulation approach by allotting a specific portion of frequency bandwidth to each participant. Each caller is given a designated broadcast time slot. Comparing TDMA to analog systems, spectral efficiency is enhanced. NA-TDMA is the name of a variation of this standard that is utilized in North America. Other TDMA-based cellular systems include improved TDMA, GSM, D-AMPS, PDC, and DECT.

TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry):
A method for tracking network flaws like weak connections or broken cables. A pulse with a known shape is sent through the network, and when it encounters a barrier or cable termination, it produces an echo. The break can be identified by measuring the time between delivering the pulse and getting the echo. To conduct this test and interpret the data, sophisticated testing equipment is available.

Techquilibrium is the point of equilibrium when an organization has the ideal combination of conventional and digital talents and resources to support the business model required to compete most successfully in a sector that is undergoing a digital revolution.

Techquisitions are the purchasing of digital or IT firms by businesses operating in other traditional sectors that have never produced or sold products or services based on information and communication technology.

A shortened version of “telephone company.” Typically speaking, it alludes to the local exchange carrier (LEC).

Telecom Analytics:
To meet the complex needs of telecom enterprises, advanced business intelligence (BI) solutions are bundled with telecom analytics. Among them include boosting sales, lowering churn and fraud, enhancing risk management, and lowering operating expenses. Ad hoc querying, multidimensional analyses, predictive and descriptive modeling, data mining, text analytics, forecasting, and optimization are all standard features of analytics systems that go beyond common BI solutions’ reporting and dashboarding capabilities. Using analytics in telecoms aims to increase visibility into essential business functions, internal operations, and market situations, identify patterns, and make predictions. Future analytics will also contain information from sources other than conventional sources for billing and mediation. Some of these include deep packet inspection, a home subscriber server, video optimization tools, and on-device clients.

Telecom Equipment Support Services:
Enterprise equipment services and infrastructure equipment services are included in this sector.

  • Enterprise equipment services: Business-based telecom systems and equipment that link to private data voice networks or the public switched telephone network (PSTN) are referred to as enterprise equipment.
  • Services for carrier infrastructure equipment — Infrastructure equipment refers to all types of equipment (some systems and integrally connected services) that come together to create the communications networks utilized by public service providers worldwide. The PSTN is a prime illustration. Mobile networks are among the others, along with IP and other data networks. Six main components make up infrastructure equipment: switching, transport, access, signaling, support, and mobile infrastructure.

Telecom Expense Management Services:
The IT, procurement, and finance departments of businesses may purchase, furnish, support, and control the expenses of extensive corporate communications and related IT services with their inventory thanks to telecom expense management (TEM) services (such as fixed and mobile telephony and data, cloud license tracking and emerging IoT connectivity). They also offer the tools necessary for C-level technological decision-making. SaaS-based applications/platforms, managed services, and related professional services are the main areas of Gartner’s TEM coverage.

Telecommunications Carrier:
Catch-all or general term for any organizations that, as their main line of business, offer some telecommunications service to everyone or a specific subset of consumers, businesses, governments, and other telecom service providers (fixed and mobile; voice and data).

Telecommunications Equipment:
Mobile devices, PBX equipment (contact center, telephony, and IP telephony), and network equipment are now included in the telecom equipment definition (LAN and WAN).

Telecom Enterprise networking and communications: 
Enterprise networking and communications refer to telecom tools and systems in residential and commercial spaces that link to private data, voice networks, or the PSTN. 

Telecommunications Services: 
Fixed-network services (data retail, Internet retail, voice retail, and wholesale) and mobile services are now included in the category of telecom services.

All dedicated/private line, packet, and circuit-switched access services (such as frame relay, asynchronous transfer mode, IP, Integrated Services Digital Network, DSL, multichannel multipoint distribution service [MMDS], and satellite) are included in the category of fixed-data services. The kind of traffic or application delivered by these services needs to be differentiated. These services can transport any type of communication, including voice, nonvoice data, picture, video, fax, interactive services, and even voting. No wholesale or carrier-to-carrier income is included; all Revenue represents the service provider’s yearly retail Revenue, which is paid for by the service’s business and residential end users.

Fixed-voice services include the provision of local and long-distance voice services (calling charges, line rental/subscription, and connection fees are included in this category), enhanced voice services, data and fax transmission over the circuit-switched PSTN, and retail voice over IP revenue — paid for by the business and include all services that are sold as such to end users.

The service’s residential end customer; no wholesale or carrier-to-carrier income is considered.

Mobile telecom services — All mobile carriers in that geographical market’s Revenue from mobile phone calls and mobile data usage (Short Message Service [SMS] and mobile data access). Consumer fees are eliminated. This category includes Revenue from mobile phone calling costs, mobile data access, SMS fees, line rental/subscription fees, and connection fees.

Services provided by carriers or wholesalers are not accounted for in corporate IT expenses. Wholesale/carrier services represent carrier income from service exchanges between pages.

The ratio of fixed (landline) phone connections per 100 residents in a specific location. Teledensity is frequently employed when comparing the availability of voice and data communications services between urban and rural areas or between different nations. As an economic facilitator, boosting teledensity is a top priority for the governments of many emerging countries. In certain nations, teledensity is declining as fixed-mobile service is replaced. Also, see FMS.

Telematics transmits real-time data to an organization via wireless devices and “black box” technology. Installed or after-factory boxes that gather and communicate data about vehicle use, maintenance needs, or automotive servicing are most frequently employed in the context of vehicles. Telematics may also use GPS technology to track down stolen cars and offer real-time information on airbag deployments and auto accidents. Additionally, usage-based insurance, pay-per-use insurance, pay-as-you-drive (PAYD) insurance, pay-how-you-drive (PHYD) programs for fleet insurance, and adolescent driving programs for retail businesses can all be supported by telematics.

Commercial car insurers may now employ telematics for fleet products, driver data, vehicle monitoring, and personal line deployments. New types, however, known as “mobile telematics,” are on the rise. In these systems, cell phones link to the car’s computer system to get data, which is then sent to the insurer through the phone’s wireless network.

Telephony-centric UC Approach:
These solutions are additions to unified messaging (UM) and IP PBX platforms. UM, and PBX are often tightly connected; other times, the two are provided by different suppliers. One-number service, phone twinning support, softphones (which may be proprietary), remote phones (phone login over the internet), and fixed-mobile convergence are typical examples of the capabilities provided (FMC). The top PBX suppliers are examples of PBX- and IP-centric systems.

Extremely large-scale computer systems called tera-architectures self-assemble from parts and provide resilience through a software architecture built to recognize, tolerate, and react autonomously to component failure. Due to the scale (tens of thousands or more servers are used to execute the program), errors are frequent, and components are continually failing. Still, the resilient architecture enables the service to be successfully supplied to users despite the internal faults that are not visible to the user. Software must adapt to the environment or be mainly developed to work there.

Terabit-per-second Transport:
Systems having one or more wavelengths running at one terabit per second (1 Tbps) or above are referred to as terabit-per-second transport systems.

TERM (Technology-enabled Relationship Management):
Establish a single enterprise-wide client view throughout all customer contact channels (i.e., sales, marketing, customer service, and support). Given the complexity of the field, challenges with integration, data flow, data access, and marketing strategy all require complicated solutions. The database that acts as the customer information repository is a crucial part.

A computer communication device that combines a keyboard and screen. Depending on whether a terminal can process data independently, they are classified into several kinds.

  • Dumb terminals are simple input/output (I/O) devices like display monitors that send and receive data from a mainframe or network server. They lack any internal processing power. Workers input information and instructions that are transferred to a computer situated somewhere else.
  • Smart terminals are monitors that only process a small quantity of data.
  • Intelligent terminals are devices with a CPU and main memory for performing specialized display duties. Examples are AT&T Display Phones and information kiosks.
  • 3270 terminals are IBM display stations used to connect to mainframes built by companies other than IBM. They are often used and widely imitated.

Terminal Emulation:
A device, such as a PC, impersonating a specific terminal (VT100, for instance) using the software. PCs frequently employ terminal emulation techniques to connect to particular hosts, such as Digital Virtual Address Extensions (VAXs) or IBM mainframes, with which they would otherwise be unable to communicate.

Test Data Generator:
Communications guidelines for creating files comprising data sets created expressly to guarantee the suitability of a computer program or system.

Tethered Remote Access:
A computer program or system’s suitability can be ensured by following communications directions to create files holding information sets.

Text Analytics:
The technique of obtaining information from text sources is called text analytics. It is employed for a variety of tasks, including summarization (attempting to identify the most critical information within a larger body of data or a single document), sentiment analysis (determining the nature of commentary on an issue), explicative (determining what is causing that commentary), investigative (determining the specific instances of a problem), and classification (what subject or what key content pieces does the text talk about).

Text Mining:|
The technique of obtaining information from groups of text data and using it to further business goals.

Text Retrieval:
Software that uses a full-text index created from the collection of textual units to match a user’s search phrases to those in the index to locate textual information units, such as documents.

Thermal Printing:
Thermal printing is a process that uses the heat from a thermal print head to darken chemically treated paper. Thermal paper is coated paper that reacts to heat. When the paper passes through the printer assembly, it comes into contact with a thermal print head array, and the heater elements turn on to activate the thermal coating, creating the image. The only supply item used is thermal paper.

Thermal Transfer:
An output device that transfers ink from a ribbon to a receptive substrate using point-specific heat to generate the desired picture one dot at a time.

Thin Client:
An output tool that transfers ink from a ribbon to a receiving substrate using point-specific heat, one dot at a time, to produce the desired image.

Thin Provisioning:
Instead of preallocating significant amounts of capacity in advance of an application’s demands, thin provisioning assigns physical ability from a virtualized pool of storage to logical volumes on a just-in-time basis (also known as allocation on write). It reduces occurrences of stranded capacity and raises storage utilization rates, frequently in the range of 75% to 80%.

Third-party Logistics, Worldwide:
According to Gartner, a third-party logistics (3PL) provider is a business that, in exchange for payment, performs one or more logistical tasks on behalf of its clients. To qualify as a 3PL, a logistics service provider (LSP) must primarily run a business that, in some way, moves, stores, or maintains items or materials on behalf of its client without assuming ownership of those goods. Many conventional services are provided by third-party logistics companies, including:

  • Brokering and management of transportation
  • International logistics management; contract logistics; warehousing, consolidation, distribution, and fulfillment (such as air and ocean freight forwarding and customs brokerage)

Three-schema Architecture:
Three levels of schemas—the external or programming perspective, the conceptual or data administration view, and the internal or database administration view—comprise a framework for controlling access to data. These concepts were created in 1971 by a Scalable Processor Architecture subcommittee of the American National Standards Institute, but database management system (DBMS) companies only partially used them in practice. The idea is that programs and data structures are independent of one another since the conceptual schema is made up of business rules generated from a semantic data model. Since then, the focus has switched to “repository” standards and computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools.

Through-Silicon Vias (TSVs):
Individual wafers (or individual dies) are stacked to create unique, multilayer, multifunctional devices using through-silicon vias (TSVs). As the primary connecting technique, metalized holes or pillars are used to join them together vertically. The bonding of various wafer types, including radio frequency (RF), analog, digital, and memory wafers, can be accomplished by chemical and physical procedures.

A phrase used in computers to describe how much a machine processes work or information. Especially significant in information storage and retrieval systems where throughput is evaluated in terms of accesses per hour or other units.

Time Division Multiplexing (TDM):
A data, phone, and video communication technology known as time division multiplexing (TDM) interleaves multiple low-speed signals into a single high-speed transmission channel.

Time Out:
The predetermined amount of time before a terminal system takes action. A poll released or an access time out are examples of common usage. If the time-out period passes without keying being resumed, a terminal is disconnected (when a terminal on a local-area network is prevented from transmitting for a specified time).

TLM (Technical License Management):
A platform-independent automated system for managing and controlling software that:

  1. Ensures that access and usage are compliant with relevant license agreements.
  2. Offers a foundation for figuring out corporate user needs.
  3. Works with network and system management tools.

TLP (Transmission-level Point):
Any location in a transmission system where the signal’s power level is monitored

TLS (Transport Layer Security):
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) provides internet-based transaction security.

TMG (Trunk Media Gateways): 
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) provides internet-based transaction security.

TMS (Transportation Management System):
Planning freight movements, rating and shopping across all modes, choosing the best route and carrier, and managing freight bills and payments are all done using a TMS (transportation management system).

Tokenization replaces sensitive data, such as a credit card number, with a token, a substitute value. For future reference, sensitive data still often have to be safely kept in a single location with high-security measures in place. The security of a tokenization strategy is based on the safety of the sensitive values, the algorithm and method used to generate the surrogate value, and the process by which it is mapped back to the original value.

Total Connections:
Tokenization replaces sensitive data, such as a credit card number, with a substitute value known as a token. Strong security measures must be put in place to protect sensitive data, which must nevertheless be kept safely in one central location for future use. A tokenization approach’s security is based on protecting the sensitive values and the technique and method used to generate the surrogate value and map it back to the original value.

Total Cost of Ownership (TCO):
According to Gartner, the total cost of ownership (TCO) is a thorough evaluation of expenditures associated with information technology (IT) or other expenses over the course of a company. TCO for IT comprises purchasing hardware and software, managing it, providing support, communicating with users, and accounting for end-user costs, as well as the opportunity cost of downtime, training, and other productivity losses.

Total IPTV Subscribers:
Each business model mentioned below, representing an STB placed in a house and capable of receiving some IPTV, defines the overall IPTV subscriber market. The consumer may receive the STB for free, rent it, or buy it. Only once a customer has an STB can additional services like premium channels, VOD, and one-to-one video calling be marketed.

Customers may obtain IPTV “free” or automatically as part of a “triple play” package that includes landline voice, IPTV/video, and broadband Internet. In other words, consumers do not choose to purchase IPTV; instead, it is provided to them whether they want it.

These customers sign a longer-term contract for broadband or a voice/broadband bundle in exchange for their IPTV provider giving them a “free” STB and access to a limited number of channels. There is no parallel in the current pay-TV landscape for this IPTV customer. It highlights the necessity for new IPTV operators to figure out how to make the service more well-known.

Hong Kong serves as an excellent illustration. All of the long-term broadband users of the provider PCCW are given a “free” STB and limited channel access. Although many of these consumers could want to purchase more channels, a sizeable number of them continue to solely utilize the free channels if they use the IPTV service.

All of the customers of the French provider Free are given access to a home gateway with built-in STB functionality. All of Free’s clients who are situated close enough to its asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL)-capable exchanges immediately receive several fundamental IPTV channels for no additional cost.

Total Revenue:
The number of the manufacturer’s sales to end users times AWP.

Total Service Revenue:
Total of a mobile communications service provider’s value-added service revenue, connection revenue, subscription revenue, and call-charge income.

Refers to a system’s ability to locate a point of contact on the screen using coordinates and send that information to software.

A point of contact between a business and its clients. Any channel may experience touchpoints (e.g., via phone, the web, or direct contact with a salesperson).

Track And Trace:
Through track and trace technology, a product’s status may be recorded along the value chain, and its journey can be identified and verified afterward. Solutions usually comprise components for:

  1. Assigning unique identifiers (UIDs) to goods or commodities.
  2. Recording events at various supply chain nodes.
  3. Running analytics and reporting on the data.

Some systems include product authentication features, and others involve messaging for information sharing with regulatory bodies or business partners.

Trade Promotion Management And Optimization:
Consumer product producers use trade promotion management (TPM) and trade promotion optimization (TPO) as the procedures and technology to plan, organize, and carry out the activities that necessitate cooperative promotional action from their retail partners. We refer to them as “trade promotion execution” (TPx). Currently available independently or as a package, the market’s solutions have primarily been used to deliver promotional activities at brick-and-mortar establishments.

Traffic is transmitting and receiving devices. It is employed to link Ethernet nodes to nodes (LAN).

A transducer is a gadget that transforms signals from one form to another, such as a receiver or a microphone.

Transfer Rate:
The rate at which data may be sent through a communications connection or bus.

A tool that transforms information from one representative system into information equal in another.

According to Gartner, transmedia is a kind of storytelling that uses a range of complementing components, including text, images, video, and games that may be seen in various settings. Media businesses and marketers use a variety of open and proprietary programs to provide transmedia content.

Transparency is a state in which an enterprise’s material facts are promptly and preferably reusable, made public.

  • Reliable information essential to internal and external stakeholders’ decision-making is referred to as material facts.
  • The enterprise is the subject of transparency (not an individual).
  • Reusability enables information users to create analyses without compromising the material facts’ contextual significance.

A satellite-based transmitter-receiver that automatically broadcasts signals when it receives specific signals. A transmitter-receiver subsystem on board a satellite that processes, amplifies, and retransmits a range of frequencies (the transponder bandwidth) to another location/terminal/antenna on the earth is referred to as a “satellite transponder” as a whole. A typical satellite has many transponders, each of which may accommodate one or more communication channels. Satellite transponders can occasionally directly transmit to neighboring satellites in a configuration known as a satellite mesh topology. Both the cost of building these systems and the services to end customers are often higher.

Trouble Ticket:
A record of a customer issue or complaint that is often made in a call center or contact center. Until the problem is fixed, the ticket is still open.

Adjusting computer system control variables to make a system divide its resources most efficiently for a workload.

Offers point-to-point services without the need to modify the data to account for various network types or protocols.

Type A, B, And C Enterprises:
A Gartner methodology that divides businesses into groups based on how they embrace new technologies. Classification is based on the enterprise’s current technology adoption plan and whether senior management supports and has enough funding for the strategy.

  • Typically financially strong and technically ambitious, type A businesses use IT to their advantage.
  • Most businesses, or type B organizations, are regular IT users with sufficient finance who employ IT for productivity.
  • Technology-conservative and risk-averse Type C businesses aim to keep IT expenses under control.

Knowing the kind of organization gives business strategists a practical approach to assess how well an organization uses technology compared to its rivals and to decide when, how, and where to implement new technologies.

T-1 carrier: 
T-1 lines are a well-liked leased line option for companies connecting to the internet and for Internet Service Providers connecting to the Internet backbone. They are dedicated phone connections that support data speeds of 1.544Mbits per second—often known as a DS1 line.

T-3 carrier:
T-3 lines are dedicated phone lines that can handle data speeds up to 43 Mbps. ISPs primarily use them to connect to the backbone of the internet. DS3 lines are occasionally mentioned.

A procedure for formatting text on a page with web design. Using tables and their cells also makes it possible to make text columns. Using tables rather than frames is advised to make your website ADA-compliant.

An established set of guidelines instructing computers to communicate information over the internet is known as the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. TCP/IP is built on additional Internet protocols, including FTP, Gopher, and HTTP.

In general, telephony refers to connecting telephones to one another to transmit voice signals across long distances. A system that is feature-rich, user-friendly, and smoothly interfaces with your current business systems may be designed and implemented by ITAdOn’s experienced team of telecommunication specialists. Please click here to learn more.

Regardless of the kind of machine you’re connected to, a general word is used to describe the procedure of starting a remote interactive login session.

Terminal emulation:
Communicating with another computer, such as a UNIX or IBM mainframe, using your desktop computer as though you were in front of a terminal directly linked to the system. Includes the program used for terminal emulation as well. For VT100 emulation, examples include the Telnet software, and for IBM 3270 fullscreen emulation, QWS3270 (Windows) and TN3270 (Macintosh).

Tag Image File Format is a well-liked file format for desktop computers to store bit-mapped graphic pictures. The graphic may be in color, grayscale, or black and white and may have any resolution. This type of file’s name often includes the suffix “.tif.”

A set of bits is sent from one machine to another over a token-ring network. One computer at a time can transfer data to the other systems on the web, depending on which computer holds the token. A network security card sometimes referred to as a hard token, can also be referred to as a token.

A bar towards the top of an application window on a graphical user interface system that makes it simple to access commonly used choices.

Trojan horse:
A software with a beautiful interface intended to make you believe you want it, but when it is executed, it does terrible things.

All Windows and Macintosh operating systems provide technology for outline fonts. A display device can create a character at any size using an outline font since it is scalable and can be described geometrically.

A status update that Twitter user posts with no more than 140 characters to answer the query “What are you doing?” and to introduce themselves to other users.

A service that enables users to browse updates provided by other users and make their updates, or “tweets,” via a computer or mobile device.

Twisted pair cable:
Two individually insulated wires wrapped around each other make up this kind of cable, often found in telephone jacks. The line is more flexible and thinner than coaxial cable, which is used in connection with 10Base-2 or 10Base-5 standards. Three pairs of wires are often found in Ohio State UNITS telephone jacks; one pair is used for the phone, and the other two can be connected to 10Base-T Ethernet networks.

Two-factor authentication:
A token security device provides an additional layer of protection; a personal identification number (PIN) identifies users as the owners of specific tokens. To uniquely identify the owner of a particular network service, a number is an input after the PIN is shown on the token. Each user’s identifying number is often altered, typically every few minutes.


Ultra-high-speed Broadband Internet:
According to Gartner, home services that provide download rates of more than 50 Mbps are considered ultra-high-speed broadband Internet.

According to Intel, an ultrabook is a particular kind of ultramobile laptop. By leveraging innovative low-power CPUs combined with instant-on functionality, ultrabooks are smaller, lighter, and have longer battery lives without sacrificing performance. It currently has the following characteristics: instant-on, less than 21 mm in thickness, a minimum battery life of five hours, security features, a screen size of at least 11 inches, and Intel processors based on the Ivy Bridge architecture. However, Intel will likely update its specifications for what constitutes an Ultrabook.

Nanomaterials are used in ultracapacitors to store a static charge on each side of a sizeable insulating material surface. Despite the low voltages, the charge density is substantial. The energy density of ultracapacitors is higher than that of lead-acid batteries, and lab units have a far higher capacity. Technology is still developing as energy storage capacity, and costs come down. Ultracapacitors will eventually be a viable alternative to batteries for uninterruptible power supplies in data centers (UPS).

Tablets, thin and light PCs, and convertibles fall under ultra mobiles, a term used to describe midsize, lightweight computing devices. These gadgets generally weigh less than 3.5 pounds and feature displays between 7 and 13.9 inches in size (1.6 kg). The three categories of ultramobile identified by Gartner are premium, essential, and utility:
Premium ultramobiles have user interfaces that are tailored for media consumption while still being able to process large amounts of data. Apple’s MacBook Air, Lenovo’s Yoga 3 Pro, and Microsoft’s Surface Pro are examples of ultraportable premium products.
Basic ultramobiles are distinct from premium ultramobile in that they have a more constrained set of features and an absence of robust content production tools. The primary activity that drives these gadgets is consumption. They rely on the usage of specific software associated with the OS and are designed mainly for input during data processing, social interaction, and content consumption. Wireless keyboards and other accessories, like docking stations, can be used to increase their functionality. However, the typical and most common way to use them is as open-slate tablets with touch input. Devices like Chromebooks are included in this fundamental category of clamshell form factors since their functionality is quite restricted when not connected to the Internet. This category includes, among other things (white-box products excluded), smaller Windows devices with displays up to 10 inches, Apple’s iPad and iPad Mini, all Android-based tablets, including Google’s Nexus 9, and Chromebooks.

Utility ultramobiles come in at the lowest price by making concessions regarding camera quality, screen size, and resolution. Utility tablets may very well be a new user’s first data-centric gadget. White-box vendor items make up the majority of this category.

Unified Communications (UC):
Multiple business communications channels, including phone, video, personal and team messaging, voicemail, and content sharing, are provided by and combined in unified communications (UC) systems, which include hardware, software, and services. Control, administration, and integration of various channels fall under this category. Additionally, networks and systems, IT business applications, and, in certain situations, consumer apps and devices can all be linked with UC goods and services.

Unified Communications and Collaboration (UCC):
Technology that combines communication and collaboration is known as unified communications and collaboration (UCC). Until recently, the suppliers for business collaboration and enterprise communications were mainly separate, with software giants like Microsoft and IBM dominating the former and phone and networking firms making up the latter. The fact that Microsoft and IBM provide voice and telephony functions and that companies like Cisco have entered the collaboration industry has, however, blurred the lines between these two categories.

Unified Communications as a Service (UCaaS):
The unified communications support six communications tasks as a service (UCaaS) concepts offered via the cloud.

  • Business Telephone
  • Audio, video, and web conferencing for meetings
  • Unified communication
  • Messaging services and presence (personal and team)
  • Mobility
  • Business operations that are facilitated by communications

The provider owns, runs, maintains, and provides the UCaaS infrastructure. Multitenancy (containing tenant partitions located on shared UC infrastructure, including data centers, racks, compute, network, standard equipment, and blades) and self-service web portals for provisioning, administration, and performance/usage reporting are typical characteristics. The provider licenses the service and provides apps from a shared platform in exchange for a regular monthly membership fee.

Unified Communications Products:
According to Gartner, unified communications products (equipment, software, and services) enable the interactive use of several business communication channels. Control, management, and integration of various techniques are examples of this. UC products combine communication channels (media), networks, and systems with IT business applications and, in certain circumstances, consumer apps and hardware.

Unified Price, Promotion, And Markdown Optimization Applications:
The Unified Price, Promotion, and Markdown Optimization (UPPMO) system use predictive analytics and optimization tools to organize and control every pricing element (i.e., initial, regular, promotion, and markdown). Throughout the full life cycle of the product, this technology may offer better planning and administration of pricing and promotions. For short-seasonal products or multiyear essential replenishment items, separate pricing, advertising, and markdown optimization solutions are being merged to provide a cohesive solution that better aligns with how price is maintained throughout the product’s life.

Unified Threat Management (UTM):
A convergent platform of point security products called “unified threat management” (UTM) is well suitable for small and midsize companies (SMBs). Three primary subgroups of typical feature sets are found inside the UTM: message security, secure Web gateway security (URL filtering, Web antivirus [AV]), and firewall/intrusion prevention system (IPS)/virtual private network (anti-spam, mail AV).

URL (Uniform Resource Locator):
The character string specifies an Internet page’s exact name and location as a URL (uniform resource locator).

User Authentication Technologies:
Technologies for user authentication include a range of goods and services that use various authentication techniques in place of conventional passwords. Typically, methods are categorized according to the type of authentication qualities (or elements) they employ, either singly or in combination: something known, something possessed (a token), or something inherent (a biometric characteristic). Authentication may be offered by separate software, hardware, or cloud-based services or natively supported by certain goods or services (including other security measures).

User Experience Platforms (UXP):
An integrated set of technologies known as a user experience platform (UXP) facilitates interaction between users and various applications, processes, content, services, or other users. Portals, mashup tools, content management, search, rich Internet application (RIA) tools, analytics, collaboration, social, and mobile devices are some of the parts that make up a UXP. It might come in the form of several goods or just one. The current suite-oriented horizontal portal manufacturers will serve as the initial market entrants for the UXP market in 2013.

User Provisioning:
The creation, modification, disabling, and deletion of user accounts and associated profiles across IT infrastructure and business applications are all made possible by user provisioning or account provisioning technology. Businesses may automate onboarding, offboarding, and other administrative workforce operations by using provisioning solutions, which employ strategies including cloning, roles, and business rules (for example, new hires, transfers, promotions, and terminations). Additionally, provisioning solutions automatically collect and correlate identification data from email, CRM, and other “identity stores,” as well as from HR systems. Self-service, management requests or modifications to the HR system can all start the fulfillment process. Most user provisioning implementations are still driven by security efficiency and regulatory compliance.

A standard multitasking computer system is frequently employed as a mail or website server. Despite increased competition from Windows NT, which provides many of the same functions while running on a PC or similar device, UNIX remains the top operating system for workstations.

A method of sending one or more files from a local computer to a distant one. The download is the reverse of the upload.

Universal Serial Bus connects practically every modern computer that enables rapid and simple attachment of external devices, including mouse, joysticks, flight yokes, printers, scanners, modems, speakers, digital cameras, or webcams, as well as external storage devices. The device drivers are easy to install because USB is currently supported by both Macintosh and Windows operating systems. The operating system instantly launches and starts conversing with a newly connected device. Anytime USB devices are attached, they may also be unplugged.

A username and password combination is used to access a computer system or network service.

A tool for locating materials on the Internet is the uniform resource locator. The protocol (such as FTP, Gopher, HTTP, NNTP, or Telnet), the server name and address, and the item’s path are the three components that make up a complete URL. The protocol, which usually comes after a colon, specifies the item type (:). The server name and address, separated by two slashes (//), identify the machine on which the information is kept. The path indicates the file’s name and the location of an item on the server; each location segment is preceded by a single slash (/). Examples: is the URL for the ITAdOn home page.

USB port:
A port that supports plug and plays and is used to connect a Universal Serial Bus (USB) device to a computer.

Often refers to a program that controls system resources like disk drives, printers, and other devices; utilities may also refer to memory-resident applications installed on a computer—for instance, the Norton Utilities software package for disk cloning, backups, etc.

A process for transforming files into an ASCII format that can be sent over the Internet; it is a universal protocol for file transfers between various systems, including UNIX, Windows, and Macintosh, and is notably well-liked for delivering email attachments.


Value Stream:
The value stream describes the steps in a supply chain needed to plan, procure, and deliver a particular good or service.

Value Stream Mapping (VSM):
Value stream mapping (VSM) visually represents or charts a value stream to plan improvement activities efficiently.

Value-added Network (VAN):
Value-added carriers offer unique data transmission services through a private network called a value-added network (VAN).

Value-Added Reseller (VAR):
An entity that often forms a sales channel for an original equipment manufacturer is known as a value-added reseller (VAR) (OEM). VARs receive discounted access to OEM products in exchange for assisting the OEM with product sales by enhancing the customer experience before the sale (such as facilitating proof of concepts and providing presales engineering and sales support). The VAR increases the ultimate sale price of the product as a markup for these services.

Value-added Service (VAS):
A value-added service (VAS) provided by a network or its resellers increases customer advantages while generating more income. The sum of SMS, data over cellular and information service income is used to compute total VAS revenue. Call costs or subscription revenue is included with all other VAS revenue since it is transparent.

 Value-adding activities are those carried out by a business or its supply chain that directly benefit the satisfaction of its customers or that customers would be willing to pay for.

Value Ops is an IT operations strategy that provides a comprehensive collection of concepts, techniques, and philosophies to help I&O professionals put the proper operations procedures in place depending on business needs by utilizing Gartner’s Pace-Layered Application Strategy.

Variable Bit Rate (VBR):
The ATM Forum has established the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) quality of service category known as a variable bit rate (VBR). There are definitions for real-time variable bit rates (rtVBR) and non-real-time variable bit rates (nrtVBR). Additional quality-of-service parameters, such as the maximum cell transfer delay, cell delay variation, and maximum burst size, must be agreed upon in addition to the traffic parameters for peak cell rate (PCR) and sustainable cell rate (which define the average bit rate required by the application). Compressed voice and videoconferencing for rtVBR and response-time-sensitive data like Systems Network Architecture (SNA) for nrtVBR are typical applications.

Microsoft’s scripting language, VBScript, was derived from Visual Basic (VB). Similar to JavaScript, VBScript is designed to be used as a server-side language (Active Server Pages — ASP) and an administration language (Windows Scripting Host — WSH). Unlike JavaScript, Microsoft’s Internet Explorer is the only browser that supports it.

A vendor is a final party in the chain to brand a product and sell it directly to end customers or through a channel. A vendor can create and produce its goods, assemble entire systems from parts made by others, or buy goods from an original equipment manufacturer or contract manufacturer. A vendor may also offer services for IT technologies, as well as maintenance or non-maintenance for its products and those of other vendors.

Vendor Management:
Vendor management is a discipline that helps businesses to keep costs under control, promote service quality, and reduce risks so they can get more out of their vendors throughout a transaction.
The vendor management research from Gartner assists clients in making intelligent vendor selections, categorizing vendors to ensure the best contract, metrics, and relationship, figuring out the ideal number of vendors, reducing risk when using vendors, and creating a vendor management organization that is most appropriate for the enterprise.
Effective delivery of contractual goods and services enables companies to establish, manage, and oversee vendor contracts, relationships, and performance to their fullest potential. By doing this, customers may achieve their business goals, reduce the risk of business interruption, prevent deal and delivery failure, assure more sustainable multisourcing, and get the most out of their providers.

Vendor Revenue:
Vendor income is the money technology companies make from selling hardware for printers, copiers, and multifunction printers (excluding supplies). It would be determined by subtracting channel margins from end-user spending.

Vendor Risk Management (VRM):
Ensuring that the use of service providers and IT suppliers does not pose an unacceptably high risk of business interruption or have a detrimental effect on business performance is known as vendor risk management (VRM). Enterprises that must evaluate, monitor, and manage risk exposure from third-party suppliers (TPSs) who offer IT goods and services or have access to corporate data are supported by VRM technology.

A standard is said to be vendor-neutral when no one vendor has any influence on how it is defined, revised, or distributed. The creation of competitive yet compatible implementations is encouraged by vendor-neutral standards, allowing the buyer to select from a wide range of providers without sacrificing functionality. Vendor-neutral measures must be thorough, constant, and freely accessible to the public or licensed for a small cost. They must also be established by a multilateral organization accessible to new members, represents a diverse cross-section of the computer industry, discloses its membership guidelines, and runs on democratic ideals. A vendor-neutral standard is preferred and accompanied by at least one additional reference implementation. The source code for software implementations would be the format for this reference. A set of conformance tests would be supplied to assure the implementation’s integrity in all likely scenarios of anticipated use.

Versatile Authentication Server and Service (VAS):
A single authentication product or service that supports user authentication in multiplatform scenarios is a versatile authentication server or service (VAS) (on-premises and in the cloud). It might be available as cloud-based services, virtual or physical appliances, or server software. A VAS must allow either open authentication methods or third-party proprietary authentication methods in addition to the VAS vendor’s own and OEMed proprietary methods, if any, without the requirement for separate third-party authentication servers or services.

Very High-speed Digital Subscriber Lines (VDSL):
Extremely high-speed digital subscriber line (DSL) connections over small distances are known as very high-speed digital subscriber lines or VDSL. For lengths between 1,000 and 4,500 feet, VDSL delivers speeds ranging from 13 Mbps to more than 100 Mbps; the shorter the distance, the faster the rate. VDSL is available in various configurations and flavors, including symmetrical and asymmetrical. Most cutting-edge VDSL installations use VDSL2, which offers up to 100 Mbps bandwidth. In our generic VDSL (VDSLx) category, we combine all VDSL technology.

Very Large-scale Integration (VLSI):
With a very large-scale integration method (VLSI), it is feasible to fit 100,000–1,000,000 transistors on a single chip.

Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT):
A tiny-sized earth station called a tiny aperture terminal (VSAT) sends and receives data, audio, and video signals through a satellite communication network but not broadcast television. A VSAT comprises two components: an external transceiver with a clear line of sight to the satellite and an inside device that connects the outdoor transceiver to the end user’s communications equipment, such as a PC. An aerial satellite transponder receives or receives a signal from the transceiver. A ground station computer is the system’s hub, sending and receiving messages to and from the satellite. A star topology is created when each end user is connected to the hub station via a satellite. The hub manages the system’s complete functioning. Each transmission from one end user to another must go to the hub station, which retransmits via satellite to the other end user’s VSAT. VSAT data throughput rates have dramatically risen over the years and can deliver multimegabit service in both the downstream and upstream directions. The diameter of an antenna or dish typically ranges from 1.2 meters to around 3 meters. These systems usually operate in the Ku-band and C-band spectrum, but with the launch of Ka-band satellites by several operators in North America and Asia/Pacific, as well as with the addition of more recent Ka-band satellites planned for Europe, high-bandwidth, bidirectional VSAT services for business, government, and other users will increasingly migrate to these satellites.

Video On Demand (VOD):
The phrase “video on demand” (VOD) refers to various things. It consists of all user-requested on-demand video material. This might be expensive movies, TV program archives, athletic events, or concerts. Additionally, it could contain user-generated video material. Moreover, some IPTV providers are beginning to provide the option to see all TV shows broadcast on their multichannel pay-TV channels in the past 24 or 48 hours on demand. This video content is kept in a network-hosted library that is regularly updated.

VOD services can be purchased as monthly subscriptions or on a pay-per-view basis. It’s also usual to combine multichannel subscriptions with flat-rate packages. The term “VOD,” as defined by Gartner, does not include free VOD downloads, which might be utilized to boost consumers’

Video Surveillance Management Systems:
By integrating with cameras, encoders, recording systems, underlying storage infrastructure, client workstations, gateway systems, and analytics software, a video management system (VMS) orchestrates a surveillance workflow. It does this primarily by offering a single interface for managing video surveillance infrastructure.

Video Telepresence:
A type of immersive visual communication called video telepresence gives conference attendees the appearance that they are in the same room as one another. These conference attendees are shown as life-size figures on gigantic plasma, LCD, light-emitting diodes, or projection screens. To make all audiovisual information directional, with eye contact and spatial sound matched with the position of the person speaking, many cameras and microphones pick up people or pairs of persons.

Gartner defines Videoconferencing as a group or individual communication utilizing technologies that enable picture, audio, and data transfer through digital networks or telephone lines. Systems for videoconferencing can be integrated into desktop computers, or they might be big, separate machines for larger gatherings.

Virtual Assistant (VA):
Virtual assistants (VAs) assist consumers or businesses with activities previously only feasible for people to complete. To help individuals or automate processes, VAs employ semantic and deep learning (such as deep neural networks [DNNs]), natural language processing, prediction models, recommendations, and personalization. Building and maintaining data models, anticipating needs, and recommending courses of action are all tasks carried out by VAs. Virtual personal assistants, virtual customer assistants, and virtual staff assistants are just a few use cases where VAs may be employed.

Virtual Channel (VC):
A virtual channel (VC) in asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is a communications path between two nodes that provides the network capacity required for a virtual connection.

Virtual Customer Premises Equipment (vCPE):
In place of purpose-built appliances, virtual customer premises equipment (vCPE) is used for business network edge services, including WAN edge routers, WAN optimization controllers (WOCs), and security functions like firewalls.

Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI):
A full, thick-client user experience known as virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI) is run as a VM on a server and accessed remotely. Implementations of VDI include:

  • program for virtualizing servers that host desktop applications (as a server workload)
  • schedule for managing sessions and brokering connections between users and their desktop environments
  • Tools for managing the virtual desktop software stack’s provisioning and upkeep (for instance, reimages)

Virtual LAN (VLAN):
A virtual LAN (VLAN) is a group of systems considered logical and continuous plans on a single LAN segment, independent of higher-layer addressing or location. The IEEE 802.1Q standard for virtual LANs allows for either proprietary or standard configurations. The hub, switch, or router’s port number, a higher-layer protocol like Internet Protocol (IP) or Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX), the Media Access Control (MAC) address, and the conventional subnet are typical grouping factors for VLANs. VLANs are designed to provide easier administration, quick additions, deletions, and movements of network devices, as well as MAC layer segmentation.

Virtual Machine (VM):
A virtual machine (VM) is a software implementation of an architecture that functions similarly to hardware in that it executes specified instructions (CPU). A cross-platform computing environment that loads and operates on computers regardless of their underlying CPUs and operating systems may be made using virtual machines (VMs).

Virtual Matrix Organization:
A virtual matrix organization uses assets (people) directly in charge of or involved with other business lines.

Virtual Network Operator (VNO):
A virtual network operator (VNO) is a company that offers telecom services by leasing capacity from telecom carriers rather than owning a telecom network infrastructure.

Virtual Private Network (VPN):
A virtual private network (VPN) is a system that offers business-focused communication services over a public network infrastructure that is shared by many organizations while also offering tailored operational characteristics consistently and universally throughout an organization. The word, in a general sense, refers to Voice VPNs. IP-based data services are directed to data VPNs to prevent ambiguity. Service providers describe a VPN as a WAN of permanent virtual circuits that typically carry IP via frame relay or asynchronous transfer mode (ATM). A VPN, as defined by technology vendors, is used to ensure anonymity for conversations across a public or untrusted data network.

Virtual Reality (VR):
Virtual reality (VR) offers a computer-generated 3D world that surrounds a user and reacts to their movements naturally, typically through immersive head-mounted displays (containing both computer graphics and 360-degree video). Hand and body tracking are provided via gesture recognition or portable controllers, and haptic (or touch-sensitive) feedback can be added. A 3D experience may be had while traveling around expansive spaces using room-based systems, or numerous people can use them.

Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML):
A method for displaying three-dimensional (3D) environments using mathematical formulas or descriptions is provided by the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML). A VRML browser can produce text and shapes in a 3D environment that is navigable. With the help of real-world events like visitor contact and collision detection when a user “bumps into” something or someone else, the v.2.0 standards improve the immersive experience even further.

Virtual Server Facility (VSF):
A characteristic of second-generation Advanced CMOS-ECL (ACE) technology called a virtual server facility (VSF) enables a user to physically divide a system into numerous systems, all within the cabinetry of the primary system.

Virtual Switch:
A virtual switch offers switching, security controls, and visibility as its three main communication features in a virtualized environment. A virtual switch allows connection between instances inside the virtual environment without passing via the standard physical switches attached to the virtualized servers.

Virtual Tape Library (VTL):
A virtual tape library (VTL) is a disk appliance with specialized software that makes the device seem to have the backup program as a physical tape drive or tape library; the device is accessible using conventional tape interfaces. When writing to a particularly configured file on the disk appliance, the backup program thinks it is writing the backup data to a genuine tape cartridge. Similar to how the backup program uses the machine for recovery, the appliance transfers data from disk spindles even if the backup software accesses the device as though the data is coming from tape. A VTL is fundamentally both a tape-like interface and a disk-based appliance.

Virtual Team:
A virtual team sometimes called a remote team, comprises individuals who communicate and work using technology like audio and video conferencing from physically separate places.

Virtual Team Building:
A series of exercises known as “virtual team building” is designed to:

Cultivate team members

  • Clarify team standards and promote team togetherness
  • Foster an understanding of your virtual colleagues’ work to help you run productive meetings online.
  • Leaders must continuously review the requirements of their team and adapt team-building exercises to maintain employee engagement.

Virtualization is the abstraction of IT resources such that resource consumers are unaware of the limits and physical nature of those resources. A server, a client, storage, networks, applications, or OS are all examples of IT resources. Resource consumers can be separated from any IT building piece.

Virtualization Software:
The virtualization software industry includes all software packages supplied as value-added options to operate on an x86 server or PC to build or administer a specific virtualized environment. Sales of new licenses to update an existing license to a recent version, telephone assistance, and on-site remedial support are all part of the maintenance and support services revenue stream. Professional services are not included in revenue. Products must represent an income stream for the business monitored individually to be covered by this coverage; they cannot just be a component of a packaged good or service. The market for virtualization software is segmented into Infrastructure for server virtualization, administration for server virtualization and HVDs are the three segments. Currently, specific revenue reporting for virtualization does not cover other types of virtualization software, such as application virtualization, shared OS virtualization, mainframe virtualization, or thin provisioning.

Visitor Location Register (VLR):
A server in a cellular network known as a visitor location register (VLR) enables roaming features for users outside their own HLR’s service region. To ensure mobility management and call handling capabilities, the VLR uses Signaling System 7 to collect user information from the HLR and creates a temporary record on the VLR while the user is inside the VLR coverage area.

Visual Basic (VB):
Microsoft’s Visual Basic (VB) is a high-level programming language.

Visual Basic Extension (VBX):
Microsoft is transforming the Visual Basic Extension (VBX) add-on to an Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) Custom Controls (OCX) framework.

Visual Basic for Applications (VBA):
The version of Microsoft Visual Basic (VB) used to generate standards and customized applications are called Visual Basic for Applications (VBA).

Visual Studio (VS):
Visual Basic, Visual C++, and Visual J++ are a few application development (AD) tools included in the Microsoft package Visual Studio (VS).

The presentation of information items and their connections is called visualization. By placing things close to one another on the screen, strategic visualization graphically demonstrates the strength of linkages. Extensive information archives may be accessed by users in various ways thanks to advanced technology. These developments show similarities in meaning, similarity in substance, or other linkages by measuring the distance between objects on display (e.g., association with a group).

Voice Application Servers:
The main component of voice application servers is software, which runs on Sun or Linux servers connected to a service provider network and interacts with other standard network components, including routers, gateways, integrated access devices (IADs), and phones. IP-SCPs and IP Centrex systems fall within this group.

Voice Browser:
A voice browser enables phone users to view voice portal websites. It prepares and provides callers with information. Additionally, it permits navigation and understands commands. Although architectures and implementations differ, many will access the portal application via VoiceXML or a comparable protocol. An expression for this is a VoiceXML gateway.

Voice Encryption:
The ability of a device to transmit digital voice signals is known as voice encryption.

Voice Endpoint:
A voice device, such as a phone, is referred to as a voice endpoint. This could be a logical IP address or a physical extension. This is especially true for IP telephones, as voice telephones and terminals only partially utilize all IP system functionalities.

Voice Mail:
Unanswered calls can be sent to a personal answering service via a network mechanism known as voice mail. The service may charge a connection or subscription fee, or the subscriber may be charged for messages deposited or retrieved to earn revenue.

Voice of the Customer (VoC):
Solutions for the recording, storage, and analysis of direct, indirect, and inferred consumer feedback (together referred to as “direct, indirect, and inferred feedback”) are known as “voice of the customer” (VoC) solutions. A comprehensive perspective of the customer’s voice is provided through the integration of technologies, including social media monitoring, enterprise feedback management, speech analytics, text mining, and web analytics. The resulting consumer insights are put into practice by providing pertinent information to the appropriate person at the right time on the right channel.

Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP):
Based on an IP standard, Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) may carry voice and data packets over the same network. With IP, a dedicated connection is not necessary for the duration of a call, in contrast to circuit-switched networks. Voice signals are transformed into packets sent over the web and reconfigured in the proper sequence upon arrival. VoIP services can be set up across private IP networks (LAN/WLAN) or the Internet.

Voice Over Wireless LAN (VoWLAN):
The employment of VoIP technology with wireless network elements to provide voice-over Wi-Fi is known as voice-over wireless LAN (VoWLAN).

Voice Portal:
A voice portal gives users access to information on the Internet and uses cutting-edge speech recognition technology. Speech recognition, text-to-speech, information aggregation, classification software, telephone and Internet connections, and administration interfaces are essential for most voice portals. Software that supports context-sensitive, individualized help (for example, an intelligent assistant) and VoiceXML compatibility are optional components.

Voice Response System (VRS):
Voice response systems (VRS) are specialized technology that enables callers to receive spoken and faxed responses to their questions without human help. Account information is provided, mailable item requests are met, callers are prescreened for script customization, host system interaction (reading and writing), and reports are generated.

Voice Response Unit (VRU):
A voice response unit (VRU) is an automated telephone answering system made up of hardware and software that enables callers to select selections from a menu of prepared messages by pressing buttons on a touch-tone phone or speaking into the device.

Voice Switching, Control, And Applications (VSCA):
Voice switching, control, and applications (VSCA) refer to the operations carried out in a network that change the route that information takes as it travels over that network, whether in real-time or close to real-time. In this sense, switching incorporates technology for packet routing (for example, Internet Protocol [IP], asynchronous transfer mode [ATM], and frame relay). Well-known markets are monitored in the switching category, including softswitches, call session control functions (CSCF), application servers, and media gateways.

Voice-enabled Residential/Small-office Gateway/Router with Embedded DSL Modem (xDSL IAD):
An xDSL IAD sometimes referred to as a voice-enabled residential/small-office gateway/router with an embedded DSL modem, is a component of a voice-over-DSL solution. Through a single DSL connection, it is possible to combine several derived voice lines, high-speed data, and continuous Internet access. In most cases, it combines a DSL modem with a router, firewall, and several POTS port configurations. It might be a wireless access point or a wired device.

More than 200 firms support the XML-based language VoiceXML. AT&T, IBM, Lucent, and Motorola founded it. The creation of interactive voice-controlled applications is the aim of VoiceXML.

Volumetric Displays:
With a nearly 360° spherical viewing angle that varies as the observer moves, volumetric displays produce visual representations of objects in three dimensions. Swept volume displays and static volume displays are the two types of actual volumetric displays. Swept volume displays reconstruct volumetric pictures from quickly projected 2D “slices” using the persistence of human eyesight. Static volume displays rely on a 3D volume of active elements (Volumetric Picture Elements, or voxels), changing color (or transparency) rather than using large moving pieces to display images.

Vulnerability Assessment:
The vulnerability assessment (VA) industry comprises companies that offer tools for locating, classifying, and managing vulnerabilities. The systems linked to the company network directly, remotely, or in the cloud may have insecure system settings, missing patches, or other security-related upgrades.

VDI isdesktop-focused service hosts users’ desktop environments on distant servers and blade PCs, which are accessible across a network using the remote display protocol.

Virtual classroom:
An online setting where students may access instructional resources whenever they choose. Email, chat, discussion boards, and other online forums are all possible ways for teachers and students to communicate.

A virtual (rather than actual) version of something, such as a hardware platform, operating system, storage device, or network resources, can be created by virtualization. The host machine in hardware virtualization refers to the physical computer being virtualized; the guest machine, on the other hand, refers to the virtual machine. Host and guest are also used to distinguish between programs that operate on physical devices and those that run on virtual machines. A hypervisor, also known as a virtual machine monitor, is the program or hardware that produces a virtual machine on the host computer.

Virtual classroom:
An online setting where students may access instructional resources whenever they choose. Email, chat, discussion boards, and other online forums are all possible ways for teachers and students to communicate.

Virtual hosting:
Using a single IP address, virtual hosting is a technique for hosting many domain names on a single computer. This enables a system to more effectively utilize its resources by sharing things like memory and CPU cycles. ITAdOn Virtual Hosting offers a high-performance hosting platform for your company’s online visibility. We make every effort to fulfill your hosted Web server requirements with the help of our knowledgeable support team and active monitoring systems running around the clock.

Virtual memory:
A method that enables your computer to access larger quantities of data than its main memory can contain at once by using a specific area of hard drive space as auxiliary memory.

Virtual reality:
A synthetic environment that mimics the appearance and feel of a real place using computer hardware and software. A user dons goggles that display 3D images, special gloves, and earbuds. Examples include controlling fictitious 3D items by “grabbing” them, touring a “virtual” structure, or engaging in an interactive game.

Software is designed to make undetectable changes to computer data, typically for malicious or harmful ends. Virtually every type of computer may be affected by viruses, which are frequently spread through the Internet and by infected diskettes. To find and get rid of them, specialized antivirus systems are employed.

Voice over Internet Protocol is a technique for using the Internet as a phone call transmission channel. One benefit is that you do not pay any additional fees over the price of your Internet connection.

By connecting to a remote access server over the Internet or another network, virtual private networking allows users to access network resources safely.

A specific kind of terminal emulator is necessary for opening a telnet connection to a UNIX system from your desktop PC


A wafer is a piece of semiconductor material shaped like an extremely thin disc and made of silicon, one of the most prevalent semiconductors in use today. 

WAG (Wireless Application Gateway):
A very small, flat semiconductor component is used in integrated circuits.

WAN (Wide-Area Network):
A server-based gateway that gives users access to business applications wirelessly. WAGs integrate with the enterprise’s application architecture by isolating the data from the display layer and reducing duplicative development work. The capacity to display the data to any device and secure access to any data source are two features of leading WAGs (e.g., PDA, wireless telephone, pager, or desktop). A WAG server may be set up as an internal platform installed within the company or as an external platform hosted by a different party that acts as a service provider.

WAN Performance Monitor:
A communications system that links computer equipment across a large geographic area. A WAN supports a considerably greater region, such as a city, state, or country, than a local-area network (LAN), which usually serves a single building or site. WANs can use phone lines or specific communication lines.

WAN Replacement:
A tool or toolset (hardware and software) that enables the monitoring of WAN traffic and issues

WAP (Wireless Application Protocol):
Virtual private networks (VPNs) based on the internet or managed VPN services are used to connect branch offices in wide-area network (WAN) replacement.

WAP Browser:
Users of wireless devices may access and engage with wireless information services and apps thanks to an open, universal standard. Internet standards are the foundation for WAP specifications, which have extensions for wireless device environments. Application, session, transaction, security and transport layers comprise the protocol stack in which the WAP architecture’s specifications are organized. WML and WMLScript for content and Wireless Telephonic Application Interface (WTAI) for telephony service capabilities are included in the application layer.

WAP Forum:
A microbrowser for WAP-enabled smartphones that finds and shows information. Browsers carry out the client-side operations necessary to deliver Web content to a WAP device. Also, refer to microbrowser. 

Warehouse Management System (WMS):
The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) Forum was established in 1997 by Ericsson, Motorola, Nokia, and Unwired Planet (now, and it is in charge of publishing and creating WAP specifications. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and the Telecommunications Industry Association collaborate closely with the WAP Forum (TIA). The WAP Forum’s mission is to develop an industry standard to promote wireless device interoperability.

Warehouse Simulation:
A thorough computer or mathematical model of all proper operations in a distribution facility. The simulation recreates the center’s activities, calculates their duration, and considers any physical restrictions. The main topics of a warehouse simulation are generally capacity planning, throughput estimates, inventory analysis, and the effects of various logistics tactics on overall performance and costs.

WASP (Wireless Application Service Provider):
Provider of hosted wireless apps, saving businesses the expense of developing their complex wireless infrastructure.

All those business operations or larger supply chain processes do not increase the value of a good or service delivered to a customer.

Waste Walk:
Visiting where the event takes place or traveling there (as opposed to viewing it from someone else’s perspective).

Wave Power:
Using various technologies, such as hydraulic rams, pumps, and turbines, wave power is produced by converting the kinetic energy associated with the rise and fall of ocean waves into electrical energy.

Wavelength Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network (WDM-PON):
A fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) system known as a wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON) uses numerous wavelengths that can be allocated to individual customers or shared among several users. This boosts the capacity of WDM-PON systems over those where each user shares a single wavelength. The International Telecommunication Union is standardizing WDM-PON with the help of the Full-Service Access Network’s Next-Generation Access program (FSAN).

WBS (Work Breakdown Structure):
Another type of process mapping is the work breakdown structure.

WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access):
The UMTS standard uses CDMA technology for 3G digital mobile networks. It offers improved voice capacity and possible peak data rates of up to 2 Mbps. It is the path that GSM and EDGE take to become UMTS. The 3GPP task group has identified a sequence of evolutionary milestones for the development of WCDMA toward 4G, which it is still working on:

  • R.99 (Release 99) – specifications for the first iteration of WCDMA, a 3GPP standards project to lay down the prerequisites and fundamental structure for UMTS 3G mobile networks, finished in 1999. The UTRA and the fundamental components of this early 3G development were established by R.99.
  • R.4 (Release 4) – Specifications for the advancement after R99, issued in 2004. R4, which added basic VoIP routing and the separation of the control channel from the connection in the circuit-switched core network, was the first step toward an all-IP core network.
  • R.5 (Release 5) — Specifications for the advancement after R4 was made public in 2005. With the addition of HSDPA and HSUPA for high-speed packet data services, IMS for multimedia, and support for convergent IP networks, R.5 expands the capabilities of WCDMA. In the UTRAN, IP transport was included.
  • R.6 (Release 6) — Specifications for the development after R5 was finished in 2006. WCDMA’s R.6 expansion adds MBMS for mobile TV services, PoC, and EUDCH for improved data rates. Specifications for the first iteration of WCDMA, a 3GPP standards effort to lay out the criteria and fundamental structure for UMTS 3G mobile networks, were completed in 1999 under the name R.99 (Release 99). R. 99. uplink capacities and speeds established the UTRA and the fundamental components of this early 3G development. IMS Phase 2 and UMTS/WLAN interworking are added in R.6.
  •  R.7 (Release 7)– The standards for the next evolution after R.6 are known as R.7 (Release 7), often known as LTE. They were locked at the end of 2007. It will include MIMO, end-to-end IP telephony, improved EDGE, and radio upgrades. Also, see LTE
  • R.8 (Release 8) – Prior to the introduction of 4G, R.8 (Release 8) further expanded the capabilities of LTE and SAE. OFDMA for the downlink and SC-FDMA for the uplink in the UTRAN are anticipated to be included in R.8. In December 2008, R8 parameters were set in stone. Also, SAE and LTE.

WDP (Wireless Datagram Protocol):
Provides a uniform data format to the higher layer of the WAP protocol stack and adapts the transport layer of the underlying bearer service to make WAP bearer-independent.

Weak Or Strong Signal:
An indication of an imminent change that might influence your business patterns, such as information, activity, or an event.

Wearable Computer:
In order to facilitate mobility and hands-free/eyes-free tasks, wearable computers and their interfaces are created to be worn on the body, such as a wrist-mounted screen or head-mounted display. Mobile industrial inspection, maintenance, and the military are typical applications. Display accessories, computer-ready apparel, and intelligent textiles are examples of consumer usage. Sixth Sense, a gesture-controlled necklace gadget that projects digital information onto actual things and locations, has also been shown at MIT.

A hypertext-based worldwide information system, the web (short for World Wide Web), was first created at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva. Technically speaking, it is an area of the internet where all documents and resources are structured using the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). Data and documents saved on computers linked to the internet may be easily found and viewed thanks to HTML and the associated Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP). HTML builds the “hyperlinks” that let users navigate across several Web publications with a single mouse click.

Web 2.0
The web transformation from a set of content pages with links to one used for developing and delivering systems and human cooperation.

Web Access Management (WAM) :
Web access management (WAM) provides integrated identity and access management for Web-based applications. Initial systems prioritized access from outside users. However, the need for WAM solutions is also being fueled by the expanding usage of portals for employee access. A role-based access control model, workflow, automated fulfillment of the access request, delegated administration (including user self-service), and self-service password reset are features included in most products.

Web Analytics :
The term “web analytics” describes a market of specialized analytic tools used to analyze and enhance online channel user experience, visitor acquisition, and behavior and to improve digital marketing and advertising efforts. Reporting, segmentation, analytical and performance management, historical data storage, and interaction with other data sources and processes are all features offered by commercial systems. The tools are utilized by marketing experts, advertisers, content creators, and the website staff. They are increasingly employed as input for automated systems to enhance the user experience.

Web ATM:
A general word for numerous types of technologies that connect the networks of automated teller machines (ATMs) and the internet.

Web Authorization Management (WAM):
A component of an extranet. Security software products work with Web servers and e-commerce systems, enabling administrators to define general user roles and authorize user access to Web-based data and resources across various applications, in addition to the authorization and management features offered as part of an e-commerce system (generally at the sub-URL level).

Web Books:
Devices with many functions and a clamshell design akin to mini-notebooks or notebook PCs. Web books are entirely implemented Web browsers, making them an Internet-centric gadget. They have WiMAX, WAN cellular, or wireless LAN (WLAN) connections for wireless broadband. The operating system is what distinguishes webbooks from PCs.

Web Conferencing And Shared Work Spaces/Team Collaboration:
Web conferencing tools facilitate interaction between participants in a meeting or presentation format and are simultaneous. Web conferencing includes voice, data, and video, real-time electronic meeting and content delivery, screen and application sharing, text chat, and group document annotation with electronic whiteboarding. Integrated voice-over IP audio, file sharing, remote control, content archiving, media streaming, and polling are examples of more sophisticated functionality.
Shared workspaces are team-oriented collaboration software that offers online workspaces for sharing files and documents, enabling asynchronous and real-time collaboration processes, including chat features, document-based collaboration, and threaded discussions.
IM and chat, video and audio conferencing, and a wide range of social software, including blogs, communities of practice, bookmarking and tagging, finding experts, social network analysis, and wikis, are other types of collaboration are not included in this market definition. A blog is a joint, asynchronous Web publication that typically takes the form of journal writing. Similar to a network of Web bloggers, a community of practice comprises individuals who participate in shared experiences and activities. A wiki is a discussion platform with server software that enables online editing and commenting on information that others have generated. Wikis have a straightforward text syntax for production.

Web Content Management (WCM):
Web content management (WCM) manages material consumed through one or more online channels using hosted, open-source or for-profit management systems built around a central repository. Even though these technologies perform overlapping tasks in customization, content management, and content distribution, we omit items like portals and e-commerce engines.

Web Crawler:
A piece of computer code, often known as a “spider,” can follow hyperlinks to the end and then go back to previously visited Internet locations.

Web E-mail:
A method of sending e-mail that needs a browser. Any Internet-connected device, such as a PC or airport kiosk, may be approached by a user who then launches a browser, connects to a Web mail server, enters a username and password, and checks their e-mail.

Web Hosting :
A service in which a vendor provides to host business-to-business (B2B) or business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce websites for businesses at the provider-controlled premises utilizing vendor-owned shared or dedicated servers and software. The vendor oversees the website’s general maintenance and day-to-day operations. The content is the customer’s responsibility.

Web Integration Servers:
Direct support for the Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP), execution of a high-level proprietary 4GL or scripting language, and one or more adapters for databases, legacy systems, and bundled applications. Similar Web integration servers are built on the Extensible Markup Language (XML), but they also use XML data both internally inside the server and externally with clients and other applications.

Web Phone :
A mobile device has a microbrowser and network data access via Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) or other Web integration technologies. These gadgets differ from smartphones (see separate item) in that the latter offer network-independent (offline) apps like contact management and expenditure reporting while being more data-centric.

Web Server:
The central hub through which a distant “client” (system or program) may access the content of a website or Web page.

Web Services:
A software idea and architecture for delivering application component communication that multiple major computing companies, including Microsoft and IBM, support. The idea of Web services views software as a collection of services that may be accessed across widespread networks utilizing Web-based standards and protocols.
A Web service is a software component that can be accessed by another program (such as a client, a server, or another Web service) using widely used, widely accessible protocols and transports, such as Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP). A basic set of XML-based standards for Web service interface definition, discovery, and remote calling have been agreed upon as a result of collaboration between IBM and Microsoft, with assistance from other companies, including Ariba and Iona Technologies. They consist of the following:

  • The Web Services Description Language (WSDL), which is used to describe Web service interfaces.
  • UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration) is a tool that allows users to publish and find available Web services and learn about their features and interfaces.
  • Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) enables a Web service to be called by an application.

 See also XML,.NET, SOAP, UDDI, and HTTP.

Web Services Software:
Software deployment via Web services will be an evolutionary rather than revolutionary process. However, it will take more than four years to develop these incipient standards, accumulate skills, and plan, build, and test for new versions of software that gradually incorporate these standards. Most software vendors have pledged to support Web services software standards within their established product lines. Multiple industries will use web services standards, including integration suites, AD tools, and some corporate application sectors.

Web TV:
With the help of a unique remote control and a decoder that sits on top of the TV, users of web TV services may access the web on a television set. Service providers, such as TV broadcasters, satellite, and telecom operators, offer their services. Depending on the local infrastructure, the connection may be made through various media, including analog or digital telephone lines, cable networks, or satellite links.

Web Widgets :
Web widgets are reusable, independent Web programs that anyone with the necessary authoring permissions can integrate into other people’s websites. They do not call for site-specific compilation or handing over website management to the widget provider. To interact with resources accessible over the web, widgets employ REST-based APIs or representational state transfer.

Web-enabled :
Refers to any program or document that uses the Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) to link to other programs or information while using the internet as a communication hub.

Web-oriented Architecture (WOA):
A substyle of service-oriented architecture (SOA) known as web-oriented architecture (WOA) makes use of Web architecture. Through five fundamental generic interface constraints—resource identification (e.g., uniform resource identifier [URI]), resource manipulation through representations (e.g., HTTP), self-descriptive messages (e.g., Multipurpose Internet Messaging Extensions [MIME] types), hypermedia as the engine of application state (e.g., links), and application neutrality—it emphasizes the generality of interfaces (user interfaces and APIs).

A website is a group of files that can be accessed via a web address, covering a specific theme or subject, and are controlled by a specific individual or organization. The home page of the website is its first page. A website, which is hosted on servers linked to the online network, may format and distribute the information required by users worldwide every day of the week. Websites often utilize HTML to structure and show information and offer user-friendly navigational tools for moving about the site and the internet.

Website Experience Analytics:
Website experience analytics examines how well an online delivers a net positive user experience that may encourage website purchase or customer involvement. It is a subset of sophisticated web analytic approaches.

WECA (Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance):
The Wi-Fi Alliance is its current name. The Wi-Fi Alliance and Wi-Fi.

WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy):
A feature that protects and decrypts data signals sent between WLAN devices. WEP is an optional IEEE 802.11 feature that offers data secrecy comparable to a wired LAN without cutting-edge cryptographic methods to increase privacy. WLAN links are as secure as cable links thanks to WEP. Also, see WPA.

WFM (Wired for Management):
Intel created a plan with the assistance of prominent information technology (IT) companies for making PC-based systems, such as servers, workstations, and mobile devices, universally controllable. The program includes developments in hardware and software that allow server, desktop, and mobile system management applications and their interaction with system management frameworks and tools. Enterprises should be aware of, assess, and consider the hardware and software advancements in any PC purchases.

WFM (Workforce Management):
A system designed to make the most of agent labor by forecasting incoming call volumes and assigning personnel to certain times of the day, days of the week, weeks of the month, etc. In order to fulfill demands precisely. WFM systems forecast future calling patterns and volumes for given periods using past calling records from the automatic call distribution system. Among the features are 

  • call volume forecasts, 
  • determining the number of agents needed based on the desired average response time, 
  • scheduling agents, 
  • managing meetings and vacations, 
  • reporting, 
  • “What if” analysis.

Wholesale Carrier:
A company that runs and owns a telecom network and rents out network space to other telecom service providers.

Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity):
An organization that manages or administers a telecom network and rents network space to other telecom service providers.

Wi-Fi Alliance:
An international non-profit organization established in 1999 to verify the compatibility of WLAN equipment built on the IEEE 802.11 standard. Also, see WECA.

Wi-Fi Mesh:
Wi-Fi-based mesh topology network that is often connected via proprietary extensions. The Wi-Fi Alliance Task Group 802.11s is developing a new IEEE standard for Wi-Fi mesh. Likewise, see the mesh network.

Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA):
A security solution called Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) was created as a transitional measure to 802.11i. Before 802.11i was approved, wireless networking providers released WPA in late 2002. Although WPA codified the option for encryption, it kept the option for authentication open. WPA replaced the weak WEP, although WPA2 eventually took its place.

Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2):
The Wi-Fi Alliance’s final version of WPA, known as WPA2, includes every component of the 802.11i security standard that has been accepted and is a requirement for Wi-Fi certification. WPA2 is available in two versions: WPA2 Personal and WPA2 Enterprise, both of which are backward-compatible with WPA.

WiBro (Wireless Broadband):
In June 2006, KT and SK Telecom launched a commercial mobile wireless broadband service in South Korea for laptops and handheld devices. WiBro has been harmonized with the IEEE 802.16-2005 mobile WiMAX standard despite being initially intended as a South Korean standard. A South Korean MIC-sponsored attempt to create a standard for high-speed portable internet gave rise to WiBro (HPi). As with its early adoption of CDMA, the previous MIC hoped HPi would open up new international prospects for South Korean business.

Wide-area Network Optimization Controllers (WOCs) :
By minimizing the effects of latency and lowering bandwidth costs using bandwidth reduction algorithms, network-level optimization, and other application layer protocol spoofing and optimization techniques that may make up for lossy links, WAN optimization controllers (WOCs) in the enterprise WAN enable application centralization. These advantages are offered to specific devices by SoftWOCs. Data replication for business continuity/disaster recovery (BC/DR) requirements uses WOCs for the data center to-data center WAN connectivity.

The working name for a 60 GHz in-room wireless technology is being developed by the Wireless Gigabit Alliance, a consortium of businesses (WGA). The WGA aims to develop and promote a system capable of short-range transmission of at least 1 Gbps at 10 meters range; the Alliance anticipates that certain implementations will surpass 6 Gbps. A wide range of devices, including PCs, mobile devices, and consumer electronics, will support WiGig, designed to be a general-purpose standard. Media streaming, PC docking, all-purpose networking, and file transfer are potential uses.

WiHD (Wireless HD):
A particular interest group for the consumer electronics sector has been established to design a future standard for a wireless digital interface for streaming high-definition (HD) information between source devices and HD displays. WiHD’s initial implementation seeks to utilize the unlicensed 60GHz frequency range to deliver 4 Gbps traffic throughput.

A collaborative writing system that enables users to add or edit pages in a web browser without worrying about where or how the information is kept would be ideal for building and managing connected collections of web pages. Wikis allow for mass authoring, allowing possibly millions of authors to work together to create new material.

WIM (WAP Identity Module) :
They are used for application-level security features and wireless transport layer security (WTLS). Information about user identity and authorization may be processed and stored using a WIM. Additionally, it may be used to execute encryption and digital signature tasks on the module and store encryption and authentication keys. A WIM can be a piece of hardware, like a SIM or smart card.

WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access):
Refers to the IEEE 802.16-based broadband wireless technology and the standards organization known as the WiMAX Forum. In addition, see 802.16, 802.16-2004, 802.16e-2005, and 802.16m

Wimedia Alliance:
The UWB standard is supported and developed by an industry organization. After transferring its standards to the Bluetooth Special Interest Group, the USB Promoter Group, and the USB Implementers’ Forum, the Alliance said in March 2009 that it would dissolve. See Bluetooth and UWB as well.

A method of displaying that shows several pieces of information on distinct screen segments. The display can be tiled (splitting the screen into separate portions) or overlapped (producing a three-dimensional effect by having a screen segment partially or fully obscure another segment).

Windows CE:
An operating system for embedded applications with limited resources is Windows CE. Even though Windows Mobile is built on top of Windows CE, set-top boxes and other non-mobile devices and apps are supported by CE. see Windows Mobile 6 as well.

Windows Client:
Microsoft’s Windows client operating system is geared for both end users in the consumer and commercial sectors. All versions of windows prior to XP and Vista are included in this category.

Windows Live Messenger:
Although it is compatible with MSN IM, Windows Live Messenger is an enterprise instant messaging service that runs on Microsoft Exchange servers.

Winning in the Turns:
A collection of management practices called “Winning in the Turns” aims to establish a harmony between strategic restraint and audacious action on strategy, costs, and talent plans. Companies that speed up their performance during and after heightened uncertainty regularly display these traits. 

Wireless Data Communication:
A method known as wireless data communication sends signals through the atmosphere using the radio spectrum. It may be used on LANs or WANs in one- or two-way networks and can transport analog or digital communications. Different radio spectrum segments are used by particular wireless data communication applications and technologies to convey communications (between 30 Hz and 300 GHz).

Wireless Intrusion Prevention System (WIPS):
A wireless intrusion prevention system (WIPS) functions at the Open Systems Interconnection model’s Layer 2 (data link layer) level. By analyzing the network’s RFs for denial of service and other types of attack, WIPS may identify the existence of rogue or incorrectly configured devices and can stop them from running on corporate wireless networks.

Wireless Local-Area Network (WLAN):
A LAN communication method known as a Wireless Local-Area Network (WLAN) replaces physical wires with radio, microwave, or infrared communications. The IEEE’s 802.11 standards offer several specifications for transmission rates ranging from 1 Mbps to 54 Mbps. The physical-layer protocols 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, and 802.11n are the four primary ones.

Wireless Power:
Using inductive or radio frequency (RF) energy transmission, a wireless power source enables electrical and electronic devices’ charging or direct powering. Short ranges (a few millimeters) are best served by inductive systems, which can deliver extremely high power levels of up to several thousand watts. Tens, hundreds, or more meters are covered using RF power transmission, which operates at lower power levels (a few milliwatts or less).

Work Management :
Workflow structure is applied to the transfer of information and the interplay of business processes and human work activities that produce the information through a collection of software products and services called work management. Work management may enhance outcomes and performance by streamlining and transforming critical company processes.

Workday Financial Management Service Providers :
Workday’s two main product categories are Financial Management (FM) and Human Capital Management. Workday has now established itself as a market leader in this specific area of the software industry. Workday first made its Financial Management service available in 2008, frequently offering it along with HCM. Though the market has more slowly adopted Workday FM than Workday HCM, this is partly because SaaS growth in the financial industry has lagged. Additionally, most consumers have been from North America, while Workday FM is beginning to gain footing in other regions. In contrast to HCM services, this demonstrates a service provider industry still in its infancy. Workday services are life cycle services offered by outside service providers that are concentrated on

Workflow Management:
Two forms of workflow management exist:

  • Integration of internal and external processes is a workflow technique that enables the definition of business processes across several applications, including those from various suppliers. Typically, this calls for a commercial workflow development environment based on standards.
  • Automated actions or processes—a workflow strategy that enables automated operations, such as automating the steps of a marketing campaign or sales process.

Workforce Analytics:
A sophisticated collection of metrics and data analysis tools called “workforce analytics” is used to assess and enhance the performance of the whole workforce. In addition to conventional ratios such as time to fill, cost per hire, time to start, offer acceptance rate, accession rate, retention rate, add rate, and replacement rate, it evaluates hiring, staffing, training and development, personnel, compensation, and benefits.

High-end complex instruction set computers (CISC), explicitly parallel instruction computing (EPIC), or reduced instruction set computers (RISC)-based CPU architectures with high-performance graphics, OS, and system architecture have traditionally been used in workstations. Workstations typically include a multitasking 32- or 64-bit operating system (OS) and setups that allow high-resolution graphics and three-dimensional (3D) graphics functionality. Workstations running Windows XP/Vista or other cutting-edge OSs can be found on the workstation market alongside more conventional Unix workstations like Linux.

World Wide Web Consortium (W3C):
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), a non-profit organization with headquarters in the United States, creates and proposes Web standards.

A comprehensive Area Information Server is a tool for searching the internet for documents. They are typically seen on gopher servers to allow searching for a specific term in text-based content.

A comprehensive Area Information Server is a tool for searching the internet for documents. They are typically seen on gopher servers to allow searching for a specific term in text-based content.

A group of communication protocols called the Wireless Application Protocol allows wireless Internet access.

Wired Equivalent Privacy is a security mechanism for 802.11b wireless local area networks. The security offered by WEP is equivalent to that of a wired LAN.

Any 802.11 networks can be referred to by the Wi-Fi Alliance’s general phrase, “wireless fidelity” (e.g., 802.11b, 802.11a, dual-band, etc.). Wi-Fi Certified products have been certified as being compatible with one another for wireless communications. Wi-Fi Certified is a registered brand.

Wild card: 
A unique symbol offered by an operating system or software application is used to distinguish a collection of files or folders that share a particular trait. This is helpful if you wish to run the same procedure simultaneously on many files. For instance, a collection of files in DOS can be specified by the asterisk (*), such as *.txt.

A rectangular portion of the display screen on a system with a graphical user interface. Windows are beneficial on multitasking computers, which lets you carry out several operations simultaneously. Every task has a window you can click to make it an active process. Comparatively speaking, a “dialog box” is used to reply to input requests from an application.

A colloquial term used to describe Microsoft Windows operating systems.

Wireless (networking):
Having access to the internet without a direct network connection WAP is a wireless Internet protocol used by mobile phones and PDAs that lets you send and receive an e-mail (Wireless Application Protocol). The number of websites that offer wireless Internet content is now small, but it will grow as more devices rely on WAP.

A unique tool is included in several software that help you carry out a specific activity. An illustration would be the wizard in Microsoft Word that can help you create a new document.

Computers and other equipment make up a wireless network, a wireless local area network. A workstation is a computer with a graphical user interface (GUI) and processing capacity between personal computers and minicomputers (although sometimes the distinction is somewhat fuzzy). Workstations are beneficial for applications that demand moderate computational power and quite good graphics capabilities, as well as for development.

World Wide Web:
A network of servers that utilizes hypertext. A link can lead to various resources, including text, pictures, sound, animated files, a network newsgroup, a telnet session, an FTP session, or another web server. Hypertext is data that contains one or more links to other data. For reading World Wide Web sites, you utilize a specialized application known as a “browser” (such as Firefox or Internet Explorer). Also known as “the web” or the “WWW.”

A network of servers that utilizes hypertext. A link can lead to various resources, including text, pictures, sound, animated files, a network newsgroup, a telnet session, an FTP session, or another web server. Hypertext is data that contains one or more links to other data. For reading World Wide Web sites, you utilize a specialized application known as a “browser” (such as Firefox or Internet Explorer). Also known as “the web” or the “WWW.”

A standard called Wi-Fi Protected Access was created to enhance WEP’s security measures.

A shorthand for the World Wide Web.

What You See Is What You Get is a type of word processor that applies formatting such that the printed version of the document looks exactly like the screen version.


X Windows:
The software system created for controlling windows under Unix is called X Windows. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology created the X Windows graphical architecture, application programming interface (API), and prototype implementation. X Windows establishes a client/server interaction between the workstation and the application software. However, rather than being an entire graphical user interface (GUI), it is only the framework for one.

X Windows is the software system developed for Windows operating under Unix. The X Windows graphical framework, application programming interface (API), and prototype implementation were developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The workstation and the application software interface client/server over X Windows. However, it is merely the framework for a graphical user interface (GUI), not a complete GUI.

Language for extensible hypertext. A variation of the hypertext markup language (HTML) is used to build Web pages. It is based on HTML 4.0 syntax but has been altered to adhere to XML standards; this version is sometimes referred to as HTML 5.0.

Extensible Markup Language is a markup language used to code online documents that enable page structure to be changed by designers.



Zero Trust Network Access (ZTNA):
A product or service called zero trust network access (ZTNA) establishes a logical access barrier around a single application or a group of related apps based on identification and context. The apps are concealed from view, and only a select group of identified organizations are allowed access through a trusted broker. Before granting access, the broker confirms the specified participants’ identity, context, and policy compliance and forbids lateral movement to other network parts. This hides application assets from the public and drastically minimizes the attack surface.

Zero-latency Enterprise (ZLE):
Any approach that takes advantage of the quick interchange of information across organizational and technical barriers is known as a zero-latency enterprise (ZLE). Technical barriers exist, such as those between operating systems, database management systems, and programming languages. “Immediate” means moving quickly enough to deliver all possible commercial advantages from contemporaneous information. In any practical system, latency cannot be 0 since computers require processing time.

Based on the IEEE 802.15.4-2003 standard, ZigBee is a wireless mesh networking technology used worldwide. Electronics, intelligent meter infrastructure, home automation, and machine-to-machine automation are examples of consumer applications. The technique may be applied in several topologies, including point-to-point and straightforward mesh. One of the main challenges with the technology is battery life. A chip costs $1 to $2, $2 to $4 (with a controller required for most applications), and ZigBee’s targeted battery life and data rates set it apart from Wi-Fi.

A computer threat known as a zero-day attack, threat, or virus attempts to take advantage of undiscovered or unpatched vulnerabilities in computer applications (also known as zero-day vulnerabilities). Attackers deploy or distribute zero-day exploits (real software that uses a security flaw to launch an attack) before the target program’s developer is aware of the vulnerability.

Files may be compressed and decompressed using WinZip or Winrar on PCs or other suitable devices. Most compressed files have the “.zip” file extension. A unique zipped file has a “.exe” extension and is self-extracting. file format is also supported by Macintosh OSX, which contains utilities for both compression and decompression.

Zip drive:
An Iomega Corporation high-capacity floppy disk drive; the disks it utilizes are more extensive than a standard diskette and have a capacity of 100 MB or 250 MB of data.

Expanding a specific area of an image displayed on screen for fine detail work; most graphics applications include this feature.


How Microsoft has used the idea of Web services. Treats software as a collection of web-based standards and protocols-based services that may be accessed across public networks.
.NET consists of two programming models:

  • A Web services programming model, which makes programming interfaces available through Internet standards.
  • A system programming model designed to supplant Microsoft’s COM and windows APIs over time. 

Ethernet over twisted pair wires adapts the Ethernet standard for Local Area Networks. Students who intend to utilize ResNet from a dorm must use an Ethernet adapter that is 10Base-T compliant rather than a BNC adapter (used with 10Base-2 Ethernet systems).

2G (Second Generation):
A new generation of wireless networks that aim to advance analog and digital circuit-switched technologies The Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), IS-136, and Code Division Multiple Access are the three primary 2G technology standards (CDMA). IS-136 was identical to the Japanese Personal Digital Cellular (PDC) standard. Both IS-136 and GSM are TDMA technology. In specific IS-95B contexts, 2G services might typically offer maximum data speeds of 9.6 Kbps, 14.4 Kbps, and up to 64 Kbps.

3D (BioPrinting):
A medical application of 3D printers, directed by medical imaging data and software, specifies the design of living tissue and organs to create a functioning human organ from an individual’s or donor’s cells.

3D Photovoltaic Devices:
3D photovoltaic (PV) devices, which are used in solar panels, use a 3D structure to increase the quantity of light that the light-absorbing material in the PV cell or panel can absorb. In contrast to traditional solar cells, which have a 2D planar diode construction, 3D solar cells have a larger surface area that can absorb light.

3D TV Services:
Stereoscopic imaging, in which two slightly different images are superposed and delivered independently to each eye, is used to deliver 3D images to TVs. Several methods, including ones that do not require glasses, are now employed to convey 3D images.

450-mm Wafers:
The following change in silicon wafer size for semiconductor production is a 450-millimeter (mm) silicon wafer. 450 mm wafers increase the number of devices that may be produced simultaneously since they have 2.25 times the area of 300 mm wafers. A 450-mm wafer can accommodate up to 2.5 times more devices than a 300-mm wafer, depending on the size of the device die.

5 Whys:
A method of root-cause analysis that involves asking “why” (at least) five times before understanding the root reasons for an event.

64-Bit Windows Servers:
64-bit Windows Server refers to the Windows Server operating system running on x86 processors from Intel or AMD in full 64-bit mode. Until Windows Server 2008 R2 started releasing, most Windows Server instances ran in 32-bit mode, despite being hosted on a computer with hardware that enabled 64-bit mode. After then, Windows Server will only run in 64-bit mode. Thus all new installs are 64-bit as well.

9-Box Model:
Managers and HR utilize the 9-box model to assess employee performance and possibilities for progression within the company. The 9-box model is a grid where potential is often ranked on the y-axis and performance on the x-axis. This makes it easier for stakeholders to understand a worker’s performance in their current position and chances of success in future positions.

100-Gbps PON:
We have named generations of passive optical network (PON) technologies beyond XG-PON1 and XG-PON2 as 100 GBps PON (10 Gps PON). As of now, there is no standardization. The system may use aspects of current PON technologies and give typical access bandwidths of up to 100 Gbps.

Improvements that give 2G networks the ability to send and receive packet data. The launch of new, data-oriented services and applications is made possible by 2.5 G’s improved data rates that the air interface can support. Although data rates may frequently be as low as 20 Kbps in practice, the enhanced data rates rise to a theoretical maximum of 384 Kbps. A 2.5G technology is the general packet radio service (GPRS).

A general phrase used to describe improvements that offer 3G (wideband code division multiple access [WCDMA]) high-speed data extensions that go beyond the 384 Kbps downlink and 64 Kbps uplink given by fundamental WCDMA. High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA), High-Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA), and HSPA+ are all included within the 3.5G umbrella.

3D Flat-panel TVs and Displays:
In order to display 3D pictures on most flat-panel TVs and displays, two technologies are currently in use: alternate-frame sequencing, which employs active shutter glasses and high refresh rates on screens, and polarization 3D, which uses a pattern retarder and polarized glasses. Autostereoscopic displays, which do not require glasses to enjoy the 3D effect and use lenticular lenses or parallax barrier technology embedded into the display panel, are broadly used in digital signs and are not very popular with consumers.

3D Printing:
A device is used in 3D printing, an additive process, to produce actual objects from digital models.

3G (Third Generation):
Although some first deployments were set to support only 64 Kbps, 3G wireless networks now enable peak data rates of 144 Kbps for mobile users, 384 Kbps for pedestrian users, and 2 Mbps for stationary locations (peak speeds). Through its International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) initiative, which includes the essential standards organizations Third-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) and 3GPP2, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) organizes 3G standards. See also Long Term Evolution (LTE) and High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) (LTE).

4G Standard:
The Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) standard for the fourth generation (4G) of mobile platforms supports call control and signaling, high peak data rates, wireless bearer technology handover, Internet Protocol (IP) core networks, and radio transport networks for voice, video, and data services. The majority of 4G will be implemented as LTE-A, with peak data rates of 100 Mbps in WANs and 1 Gbps in fixed or low-mobility scenarios, and all-IP core, radio access, and transport networks.

After 4G, 5G is the next-generation cellular standard. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the 3GPP, and the ETSI are only a few international standards organizations that have defined it. Although first deployments might be less ambitious, the official ITU specification, International Mobile Telecommunications-2020, sets its maximum downlink and uplink throughputs of 20 Gbps and 10 Gbps, respectively; endpoint to RAN latency of 5 ms; and colossal scalability. Edge computing and core network slicing are features of the new system architecture.

The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has developed a standard known as 6LoWPAN that outlines a method for routing Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) across low-power wireless networks. Low-power mesh and sensor networks, which previously frequently required proprietary technology, are designed to profit from the advantages of conventional IP networking thanks to 6LoWPAN. In order to fit into a small-footprint protocol stack, 6LoWPAN uses a concise representation of IPv6, making it suitable for hardware with low processing and memory capabilities.

Following the current-generation gigabit passive optical network (GPON) (ITU-T G.984) and Ethernet passive optical network (EPON) (IEEE 802.3ah) solutions, 10 Gbps passive optical network (10G-PON) generally offers more bandwidth and more functionality. A passive fiber-optic “tree” infrastructure, where the fibers to individual users branch out from a single fiber flowing to a network node, will allow several users to share the capacity, much like its predecessors. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) certified 802.3av as a 10G-EPON standard in September 2009, featuring implementations at 10/1 Gbps and symmetrical 10 Gbps. The ITU-T G.987.1 and G.987.2 10G-PON specifications with asymmetrical and symmetrical implementations were certified by the ITU in October 2010. As defined by the Full-Service Access, asymmetric 10G-PON

2D Bar Code Marketing:
In order to design and print 2D bar codes on marketing materials like advertising, brochures, and product packages, one must use specific service providers or publicly accessible websites. More widely known as rapid response (QR) codes, individuals can download content like discounts and business cards onto mobile devices by scanning these bar codes with a camera-equipped phone to access information like websites and product details.

360-Degree Feedback:
A step in the performance management process called 360-degree Feedback involves gathering Feedback on an employee’s performance from peers, superiors, and customers. For the sake of evaluating and improving employee performance, this Feedback may be used.

3D LCDs:
Users can view three-dimensional (3D) images on 3-dimensional liquid crystal displays (3D LCDs) with or without 3D glasses (stereoscopic LCDs) (autostereoscopic LCDs). In order to create visual depth on smaller screens (usually up to 10 inches), directional backlight 3D uses the LCD’s backlight to change the viewing fields for the left and right eyes.

3D Scanners:
A three-dimensional scanner is a tool that records information about the form and looks of actual items so that 3D representations of such objects can be produced. Consumer-grade 3D scanners are inexpensive, simple-to-use tools that offer basic scanning, capturing and exporting of 3D pictures.

3GPP-(Third generation partnership project):
Under the direction of the ITU, several standards organizations are working together on a project to create international specifications for the advancement of 3G technologies. These organizations include the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA), and enterprise application integration-41 (EAI-41). While 3GPP2 concentrates on the development of CDMA2000, 3GPP focuses on the advancement of GSM and WCDMA.

4K X 2K TV Displays:
The screen resolution for the newest HDTVs is 4K x 2K. The screen format is 3840 by 2160 pixels, giving it an 8.3-megapixel overall resolution. Compared to conventional 1080 HD screens, which only provide a total resolution of 2.1 megapixels, this represents a four-fold increase in resolution. Another digital film format is 4K x 2K.

AI five-point checklist to help reduce waste at work Sort, Straighten, Sanitize, Standardize, and Sustain are loosely translated as “Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu, and Shitsuke” in Japanese. A “kaizen event” is frequently when the 5S method is used.

7 Wastes:
A set of seven activities that do not provide value that Toyota first described: Overproducing means creating goods before a legitimate order has been received; unnecessary waiting increases cycle time, which decreases agility; unnecessary transportation involves moving materials between sites without a need to; overprocessing means using more prolonged or more complex procedures than necessary; unnecessary inventory means a buildup of work-in-process or raw materials; unnecessary movement indicates an inefficient workplace, and unnecessary movement adds extra work. and too many flaws, which include subpar process quality and excessive rework. Assigning underutilization or other underutilization of resources was included as an eighth waste by Gartner and others. The abbreviation “DOWNTIME,” which stands for “Defects, Overproduction, Waiting, Nonutilized resources, Transportation, Inventory, Motion, and Excessive processing,” is frequently used to refer to the eight wastes.

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Types of IT Services

Types of IT Services

Table of Contents Software Development I. Requirements Gathering:  Collaborating with stakeholders to understand their needs and objectives for the software. II. Architecture Design:  Creating a

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